Thursday, October 09, 2008

Journeying with Jung 13

Chapter 12: Our Psychoanalytical Flag:

Every movement needs a flag under which it can promulgate its message.  It also needs a flag-bearer. Freud saw himself being in need of an heir and a flag-bearer.  For him no one would be capable of filling these roles better than Carl Gustave Jung.

Overarching interest in Mythology:

Mythology was a central preoccupation of Jung because he felt it was a veritable quarry for images and symbols which corresponded to the archetypes within the collective unconscious.  After his dream of the four-storeyed house 'archaeology or rather mythology" got him in its grip.  He saw it as a 'mine of wonderful material.  (Hayman, 118).  Exploring the psyche was like going on an archaeological dig and mythology gave such a dig a grand romantic sweep as it were.  Hayman lists his wide reading in the literature of ancient religions and myths and how he visited many archaeological sites.  Jung wrote that 'a thorough understanding of the psyche (if at all possible) will come only through history or with its help."  (Quoted op.cit., 119)  He also read widely in the writings of the theosophists.  Theosophy was founded in New York in 1875 by the scholarly writer G.R.S. Mead and Jung had many of her works in his library.  This movement covered such esoteric subjects as Gnosticism, astrology, Eastern religions, Western philosophy, clairvoyance and telepathy.  Hayman is interesting on why Jung took so readily to mythology:

In the winter of 1909-10, taking myths to represent the common ground between the individual imagination and the consciousness of the race, Jung delegated to Sabina and two of his assistants - the 24 year old Johann Jakob Honegger and Jan Nelken - the task of studying mythology and collecting material that seemed thematically relevant from patients' delusions, hallucinations, fantasies and dreams.  (Ibid., 121)

Professor Zschokke:

None of us can easily forget our earliest of influences.  It was likewise for Jung - he had never discarded what Professor Zschokke had taught him in his early days at university viz., that the growth of the human body parallels or indeed reiterates the whole evolution of the race.  As Hayman puts it, 'If antiquity corresponded to the childhood of the individual, and if mythology could be read like a map of antiquity, Jung might arrive at exciting new insights into the psyche, the spirit, the soul." (Ibid., 119)  This early belief backed up in a more scientific way his abiding interest in mythology.

The Collective Unconscious:

In 1959, when John Freeman was interviewing Jung on the television he said among other things that there was a turning point in his thought and that was that "there is an impersonal stratum in our psyche." (Quoted ibid., 122)  This short sentence is as good a definition as any as to what the collective unconscious is.  Another insight quoted by Hayman further on is that 'while the personal unconscious consists for the most part of complexes, the content of the collective unconscious consist of archetypes.' (Quoted ibid., 122)  Jung defines archetypal images as those with an archaic or primordial character which correspond to familiar mythological motifs.  He outlines three sources of archetypes: dreams, fantasies and the delusions of paranoiacs.  Needless to say, Freud would have agreed with none of this.  However, he did not quite let the father of psychoanalysis in on the whole of it or of its import.

Freudian Autocracy:

Freud saw the psychoanalytic movement as his and his alone, and he could not permit any diversion or bifurcation in its central tenets.  At one stage he writes to Jung stating that he wished to wallop the collective Viennese "behind" for departing from his teachings.  Hayman points out that 'at a November meeting in Vienna, insisting that all hysteria came from memories accumulated between the ages of one and four, he attacked Jung's view that it might be hereditary or somatic in origin.' (Ibid., 124) The differed greatly on the importance and on the role of mythology in psychotherapy.  While they spoke spoke about this subject in their letters, it is obvious that they were trying not to provoke one another.

Freud, as I have stated, was by temperament an atheist who considered himself a scientist (though this contention is open to debate) and he was very critical of the role of religion in the psyche and said:

It occurs to me that the ultimate basis of the human need for religion is infantile helplessness, which is so much greater in man than in animals.  After infancy he cannot imagine a world without parents, and invents for himself a just God and a kindly nature, the two worst anthropomorphic falsifications he could have perpetrated. (Quoted ibid., 125)

On the other hand, Jung was obsessed with the ideas he had imbibed at his mother's knee - a keen interest or blatant obsession with things of the spirit and with the other world or the occult.

It was Jung's view, then, that psychosis brings us into direct confrontation with the symbols that fill the unconscious and that these have more of a connection with mythology than with the individual.  Freud would not have seen symbols as primary.  Rather, for him, they were very much in a secondary position to language, history and personality itself.

Freud also wielded a 'literary dictatorship' over the official publication of the psychoanalytical movement - The Yearbook. Freud writes to Jung, who was the journal's editor: 'You will reprimand the Viennese, and I will deal with the Zurich people when they wander off on their own.  These reviews must express our personal convictions; this is an essay in literary dictatorship, but our people are unreliable and need to be disciplined.'  (Quoted ibid., 127)  As Ernest Jones put it, Freud was too mistrustful of the average mind to favour democratic methods.  Every branch of the international movement according to the founder had to have a leader who was in a permanent position and who could rule on orthodoxy as it were. (See 128) Hayman also shows that Freud positively bullied his followers.  Now that the International Psychoanalytical Association was to be formed, Dr Jung was to be president for the rest of his life, with the power to excommunicate anyone who ignored the rules.  (See 129) Freud's language is interesting in all the above quotations as well as his comment to Binswanger: 'When the empire I've founded is orphaned no one but Jung must inherit it - all of it.  My politics, as you see, pursues this object consistently.'  (Quoted ibid., 130)  The language used by Freud is autocratic, forceful and paternalistic.  It shows a man with a huge Ego who wished to dominate the movement he founded which he deemed to be "an empire."  For a man who loathed religion his movement had become a virtual religion with him as God and Jung as his only Son.  For the great populariser of the unconscious and its role in our psyche, it would seem that Freud was totally unaware or unconscious of how much like a religion his movement was and how much religious language he had imbibed culturally and how much he used such language in his writings.

Wednesday, October 08, 2008

Journeying with Jung 12

Attention to Detail: Getting the Atmosphere Right:

Today we read a lot about alternative therapies and new treatments for this or that ailment.  Most orthodox practitioners of medicine prefer the term "complementary" to "alternative" medicine, stressing the fact that it is at our own peril that we dismiss orthodox approaches for less proven methods.  Whatever helps is fine, provided that it is used in tandem with orthodox medicine, not as a replacement.  This is sound advice and good practice.  As they say, "it's a question of 'both-and' rather than of 'either-or'.  With this in mind I am reminded of the ancient practice and belief of Feng Shui in connection with this post on Carl Gustave Jung.  The WIKI gives the following definition of this ancient Chinese belief:

The words 'feng shui' literally translate as "wind-water"in English. This is a cultural shorthand taken from the following passage of the Zhangshu (Book of Burial) by Guo Pu of the Jin Dynasty:

Qi rides the wind and scatters, but is retained when encountering water.

Many modern enthusiasts claim that feng shui is the practice of arranging objects (such as furniture) to help people achieve their goals. More traditionally, feng shui is important in choosing a place to live and finding a burial site, along with agricultural planning.

(See this Link)

Anyone who reads Jung cannot but be amazed as to the extent of the man's reading in literature, philosophy, theology and in mythology from all the great ancient civilizations.  Hence, one is not surprised that he took a lot of time in getting his new family home designed.  One could say quite simply that he was very much aware of "Feng Shui" though he would not have termed his preparation and planning such.

He chose the side of a lake for his new house at Kusnacht.  Here is Hayman's description of Jung's preparations:

The architect was his cousin, Professor Fiechter...but in planning the building with him, Jung took many decisions for himself, which had helped to cause delays.

At last he had space where he could read and write and smoke his pipe without being disturbed by unexpected visitors...  (Hayman, 110)

Hereunder follows a description an American patient gave of Jung's consulting room/study at his home in Kusnacht:

The little room was a clutter of stacked unread letters, notes in his handwriting, all kinds of papers and books opened to special places...In the middle of the clutter was a rather worn well-stuffed, slightly floundering leather chair.  It was for the patient.  The room had a look of hard, casual use and comfort.  It was a private, warm but small nest for a large man whose cultural and intellectual curiosity knew no limits.  The dog (a schnauzer) was part of it.  He climbed in under Jung's desk, eyeing me... (Ibid., 111)

Sabina Spielrein Again - Human Weaknesses:

That Sabina was obsessed with Jung is an understatement.  Even after he had broken the relationship off, she persisted to come to Jung's lectures and he even went pale during the first such lecture when he noticed her in the audience.  Then Sabina insisted on writing to Freud for an interview, but he forwarded her letter to Jung.  After this Jung revealed to Freud all about his unorthodox illegitimate relationship with Sabina.

Again, continuing their correspondence, they talk about the reality of 'transference' and 'counter-transference' and Jung admits he was largely responsible for Sabina's obsession with him and for

...the ambitious hopes of my former patient.  Following my principle of taking everyone really seriously...but Eros was of course lurking in the background, making me impute all the other hopes and desires entirely to my patient without noticing them in myself.  (Quoted ibid., 112)

While not regretting his sexual relations with Sabina he does confess that "he defended himself (to her mother) in a way that was morally unjustifiable".  He goes on to describe his action as "a piece of knavery." (ibid., 112-113)

At least what we have here is the honesty of a "son to father" which phrase Jung uses in this letter to Freud.  One is relieved that the so-called guru of analytical psychology is all-too-human and "whole" and at least "congruent" with himself to use Rogerian terminology.  This, of course, was at the beginnings of analysis and even then, sexual relations with one's clients would have been completely frowned upon.

Trip to America:

On August 20 Jung met Freud and Ferenczi in Munich.  Then from the 21st until the 29th of August they sailed to New York.  From the 7th till the 11th of September they lectured at Clarke University, Massachusetts.  I would have loved to be in their company for the eight or so days at sea.  To while away the time on board the three psychiatrists decided that they would interpret one another's dreams.  However, it is interesting to learn that Freud, when he told a dream concerning Martha and Minna, refused to say what he associated with the contents of the dream.  Jung suggested to Freud that he would benefit from full-scale psycho-analysis.  Needless to say, the founder of psychoanalysis was none too pleased.

In the third of five lectures he gave at Clarke, Freud repeated his claim that as an investigative technique, psychoanalysis was infinitely superior to the word-association test.  William James, the famous American psychologist, made the following observations on the two learned psychiatrists:

'I met also Yung [sic] of Zurich...[who] made a very pleasant impression.'  But Freud 'made on me personally the impression of a man obsessed with fixed ideas.' (Quoted ibid., 115)

It is also strange, but not a little surprising that Jung recommended to an American alcoholic, Medill McCormick, who had consulted him some time before in Zurich, to embrace a rather profligate life and that it "might be advisable for me to have mistresses...and lose my soul if women would save it."  (Quoted ibid., 116)


Psyche as House in his Dreams:

This chapter ends with an account of one of Jung's most famous dreams, the content of which he had discussed with Freud, but he kept quiet about his own interpretation of the dream which ran counter to Freud's theory of the personality.

Jung had previously pictured human consciousness as a room and the unconscious as a cellar.  Here we have a straight-forward structural diagram of the psyche.  Then the body corresponded to the earth under the house - it sent up the instincts which were natural growths.  On the boat home Jung had dreamt that he was in a big medieval house.  Coming in from the street he descended into a vaulted Gothic room, and from there into a cellar.  He thought he was then at the lowest level, but he was not.  He then found a hole.  With a lantern in hand he peered down a staircase.  These stairs led him down to the revelation of a secret.  He found himself in an ancient Roman cellar.  He looked into a further hole and saw prehistoric pottery, skulls and bones.  The House represented the human psyche.  The upper floor stood for the conscious mind.  The ground floor stood for the first level of the unconscious.  The cave represented the primitive world.  Hayman continues:

The darkness of the lower levels meant that they could rarely be illuminated by consciousness.  The dream, he thought, 'pointed to the foundations of cultural history - a history of successive layers of consciousness.  My dream constituted a kind of structural diagram of the human psyche; it postulated something of an altogether impersonal nature underlying the psyche.'  He says that this was his 'first inkling of a collective a priori under the personal psyche'. (Ibid. 117)

Tuesday, October 07, 2008

Journeying with Jung 11

Chapter 10:  Ardent Freudian:

Jung and Freud remained very close friends for some seven years from March 1907 till 1914.  As Hayman succinctly remarks about this friendship: "Both benefited professionally: the alliance helped to propagate Freud's ideas, while the ideas helped both of them to international fame." (Op. cit., 96)  In December 1907 Jung's book The Psychology of Dementia Praecox was published.  As we mentioned before Jung worked so hard - over-work was almost an obsession with him - that he came down with a bad bout of the flu which was slow to leave him. 

Hayman this time rather prosaically takes his chapter title from a letter written by a young American Doctor who came to study at the Burgholzli, one Dr Abraham Brill who described Jung as "the most ardent Freudian" whom he knew, and continued

Jung brooked no disagreement with Freud's views; impulsive and bright, he refused to see the other side...Our conversation at meals was frequently punctuated with the word 'complex'...No one could make a slip of any kind without immediately being called on to evoke free associations to explain it.  (Hayman, 97)

The famous English psychiatrist and leading psychoanalyst Dr Ernest Jones arrived at the hospital and described Jung as having a 'breezy personality', a 'restlessly active and quick brain', though 'he could change his moods like a chameleon...' (ibid., 97)

Son-Father Relationship with Freud

Like all late nineteenth and early twentieth-century friends these two great psychiatrists wrote a voluminous correspondence one to the other.  In one letter Jung refers to the founder of psychoanalysis in religiously fervent terms, viz., he tells him that he sets a high value on 'the undeserved gift of your friendship.'  Then Jung goes on in the same letter: 'Let me enjoy your friendship not as one between equals but as that of father and son.' (Ibid., 98)

Freud always needed faithful followers - he after all was the father of the nation of psychoanalysts.  I use this metaphor here with great purpose as the ego-driven founder psychoanalyst saw himself as such.  However, Jung was almost too alike with respect to his egotism and strength of character - he also saw himself as a leader, not a follower.  Hence, while he laid out his worship of the great man Freud in his letters to him, we get hints of the shattering of the relationship to come, viz., 'I beg you to have patience with me and confidence in what I have done so far.  I always need to do a bit more than be just a faithful follower.' (Quoted, ibid., 101)  There are many insights into Freud's total belief in his own system, like where he is quoted as saying: "Jung has overcome his vacillation, adheres to the cause with no reservations...following our approach." (Quoted ibid., 103)  On the recent birth (Dec 1, 1908) of his son Franz Jung told Freud that the birth of a son had coincided with success in rationalising the father complex and in extricating him from dependence on a boss.

I was also interested in the fact that Freud used many Biblical, especially Old Testament references, even though he was a professed atheist.  I suppose this only shows how much an ethnic Jew he was.  As regards his relationship with his new son he writes to Carl Gustave:

If I am Moses, you are Joshua, and you will take possession of the promised psychiatric land that I will glimpse only from afar.  (Ibid., 105)

In a certain and important sense psychoanalysis is like the new religion as it were.  To this extent we read in Hayman again this insightful sentence: "Jocular but also serious, Freud offered to adopt him as his eldest son, formally 'anointing' him in an improvised ceremony as successor and crown prince."  (Ibid., 108)  This whole page in Hayman is worth reading because it offers a deep insight into the relationship between the two psychiatrists.  While Jung submitted rather half-heartedly to the improvised ritual, he steered the conversation to topics designed to provoke the disagreement of the older man, namely precognition and parapsychology - Freud had little belief in them while Jung was greatly convinced of their power in the psyche.  Here again we have intimations of the fracture to come in their relationship.

Romantic and Sexual Relationship with Sabina Spielrein:

This relationship gathered momentum.  At first it was purely platonic or romantic.  Eventually after long deliberations it became sexual.  He became her 'Siegfried', the romantic hero of her dreams, and Jung admits all this to Freud.  Being acutely aware as psychiatrists of transference, it is remarkable indeed that these two great men often got lost under the strength of its allure.  Sabina referred to their lovemaking as 'poetry.'  This was also a very fraught relationship - one which, when Jung decided to end it, caused Sabina to stab him at his consultancy room.  Luckily for him, she only managed to stab him in the hand.

The Enigmatic Dr. Otto Gross:

An interesting character to whom we are introduced in this chapter is Dr Otto Gross (1877–1920) who was an Austrian psychoanalyst.  He was totally unorthodox a was a drug user and abuser from his earlier years.  A maverick early disciple of Sigmund Freud, he later became an anarchist who died in poverty, having been ostracized by the centralized system of medical research and scholarship.  He considered himself to be a talker and analyst rather than a writer.  Modern scholarship refers to him as akin to a later R.D. Laing or a Timothy Leary in heralding a maverick or outsider view of psychiatry and analysis.  Indeed his father, a former judge and renowned criminologist wanted Jung to commit his son to the asylum.  Hayman quotes Ernest Jones as saying: "Gross is the nearest approach to a romantic genius I ever met...Such penetrative powers of divining the inner thoughts of others I was never to see again."  (Ibid., 99-100) The WIKI summarises Gross's contribution to psychiatry and analysis thus:

A champion of an early form of anti-psychiatry and sexual liberation, he also developed an anarchist form of depth psychology (which rejected the civilising necessity of psychological repression proposed by Freud). He adopted a modified form of the proto-feminist and neo-pagan theories of Johann Jakob Bachofen, with which he attempted to return civilization back to a postulated 'golden age' of non-hierarchy. He was subsequently ostracized, and was not included in histories of the psychoanalytic and psychiatric establishments. He died in poverty...

Carl Jung claimed his entire worldview changed when he attempted to analyse Gross and partially had the tables turned on him. It appears likely that another maverick psychologist, Wilhelm Reich, many of whose ideas mirror Gross, owed some debt to him.

As a Bohemian drug user from early youth, he is sometimes credited as a founding grandfather of Counterculture. (see here)

Interestingly this article borrows from Hayman whom I am summarising in these posts.  Freud committed Gross to the Burgholzli where Jung was his doctor and analyst.  Both gained marvellously from this "analysis".  Indeed one session was to last twelve hours.  Just as Jung arrived at his diagnosis of 'schizophrenia' his anarchic patient escaped over the walls and fled.  Gross was a complete Bohemian, preferring the company of would-be poets and artists, gypsies and addicts of all sorts.  He despised paternalism in any shape or form, actively sought out anarchists and revolutionaries and encouraged the use of drugs and argued that wives and daughters should be liberated from commitment to a single dominant male. These ideas he both found and preached in such places as Schwabing (district in Munich) and Ascona (on Lago Maggiore) (See Hayman, 99-101)  Jung was captivated by this experience of Gross and the analysis they had engaged in and said in a letter to Freud that this experience was "one of the worst in my life, for in Gross I found only too many aspects of my own nature, so that he often seemed like my twin brother'. (ibid., 102)

Psychoanalysis and Psychosynthesis:

It is a wonderful discovery for me to learn that Jung had used this word "Psychosynthesis" which is associated more obviously with the work of Dr Roberto Assagioli.  However, from the context here, it would seem that Jung associates it more with parapsychology and precognition, than with say individuation.  This would need further study to clarify.  Perhaps I will follow it up on another occasion.  Jung had said to Freud on the evening of the latter's attempt to install him as his successor in ritual form, or perhaps some few days thereafter:

Perhaps there was 'some kind of special complex...that is universal and connected with man's forward-looking tendencies.  If Psychoanalysis exists, there must also be a "Psychosynthesis" which creates future events according to the same laws.'  (Quoted, ibid., 109)

Sunday, October 05, 2008

Journeying with Jung 10

One of my favourite sayings from Jung is the one about how the first half of life is generally geared towards achievement in the world - success, a career and family building while the second part of life is primarily concerned with soul building or "soul making" as the great Romantic poet John Keats put it.  With this in mind, the chapter I am about to discuss here is very much concerned with the first part of life.  In it we see a driven young man anxious to succeed as a psychiatrist, envious of his superior, desirous of having sons more than daughters, looking for the acclaim of other psychiatrists, especially Freud.  In this he is very much ego-driven.  If this book by Hayman has succeeded in doing anything for me, it certainly has demystified and demythologised Carl Gustave Jung.  We get to see this great man "warts and all" as it were.


Chapter 9: Lusty Stallion:

Once again Hayman's titles are superb and apt.  The title is a reference, not alone to the young psychiatrist's sexual drive as illustrated in his desiring sons, but also to one of his own well-documented dreams about horses and also to his extra-marital sexual relationship with Sabina Spielrein which I discussed in my last post and which is alluded to again in this chapter.  Jung was spell-bound by and deeply in love with this woman whom he had cured and set upon her way as a Doctor and analyst. Here is Hayman again:

His faith in her spiritual powers harked back to his childish faith in those of his mother.  Sabina had a lot in common with her, and with Helly, who had chosen to make Ivenes Jewish.  Like the Preiswerks and the Jungs, Sabina's ancestors had all been spiritual leaders with pretensions to priestly insight into the secret workings of God's will...Her confidence in Jung's future greatness increased his impatience to meet Freud, who might help him to achieve greatness.  In the meantime he enjoyed discussing his destiny with Sabina.  (Hayman, op.cit., 85)

The Drive to Success of the Egotistical Jung: 

In five years at the asylum Jung had worked very hard for success and had managed to win the confidence and trust of many of the patients.  He started at a salary of 1000 Swiss francs a year and now he was earning 4000.  He was becoming as internationally famous as Bleuler was by publishing his findings.  This medical superior was once his hero and father figure, but now he was turning away from him (possibly because Bleuler suspected his sexual liaison with Spielrein, who was then a patient at the hospital) and was seeking another father figure.  This would turn out to be no less a personage than Dr. Sigmund Freud.  The final two sentences in the above indented paragraph from Hayman illustrate graphically Jung's ego-driven ambition and his sense of pride.  He looked upon himself as someone cut out to be a prophet-like expert for humankind.

Indeed, under the influence of the great founder of psychoanalysis, Jung experimented in combining the word-association test with free-association (Freud's favoured approach), hoping to shorten the time required for analysis.  In April 1906 Jung wrote to Freud and enclosed a copy of his book Diagnostic Association Studies which had been published in 1905.  Jung was also to defend Freud against an attack by Dr Gustav Aschaffenburg at a conference in Baden-Baden.  However, Freud preferred his own free-association test to Jung's suggested word-association test as he professed in an address to a seminar of criminology students in June 1906 because his own approach allowed the patient to stay on each topic as long as he needed to without being forced forward artificially by another word suggested by the psychiatrist.

Jung and Schizophrenia:

I have a lasting interest in schizophrenia because I know several people with it.  I have found the British psychiatrists Ronnie Laing and Anthony Storr,  and our own Irish psychiatrist, Professor Ivor Browne wonderful on their insights into this mental disease.  Bleuler and Jung also have unique insights. I shall mention some of these here.  The older name for schizophrenia was "dementia praecox."  Kraepelin's famous medical textbook on psychiatry had distinguished between two forms of insanity, viz., manic depression, in which periods of imbalance were followed by recovery and dementia praecox, in which deterioration was inevitable. Bleuler introduced the word schizophrenia to replace dementia praecox in a 1908 article.  From then on the term dementia praecox was never used again as schizophrenia was shown as being neither a dementia nor did it always occur in young people, praecox = young.  Here is Hayman's summary of Jung's early contribution to the study of schizophrenia:

One of the turning points in Jung's development was the discovery of 'distractability'.  A basic symptom of schizophrenia is a lowering of attention.  Even catatonia is explained in these terms - no other conscious processes engage a person's interest.  Looking at results achieved by other doctors testing subjects whose attention was distracted, Jung was reminded of schizophrenics by the sequence of words and sentences. 'Superficial linkages noticeable predominated, reflecting the breakdown of logical connections', and there were frequent repetitions.

Alert to nuances and modulations in language and tone, Jung picked up on what Freud had said about the inadequate feeling-tone in schizophrenia.  Symptoms express thoughts that had been repressed because they would have been painful.  Repressions determine both the delusions and the behaviour of the patient, who may no longer be able to take in new impressions.  But imprisoned thoughts are chaotically liberated.  (Op.cit., 83-84)

Jung, Binswanger and Freud:

A young doctor, Ludwig Binswanger joined the Burgholzli asylum in June 1906.  This man took part in many word-association tests and it was Jung who suggested that those tests be the subject of his doctoral thesis.  Binswanger used both a stop-watch and an electric galvanometer to measure the changes in reaction in the client or patient to each suggested word.  Jung also volunteered to be tested for these experiments.  This young assistant diagnosed Jung as having some eleven complexes - some of which were a Goethe complex, a travel complex and a philosophical complex.

In March 1907 Jung and his wife Emma, along with Ludwig journeyed to Vienna to visit Freud.  Jung is recorded in his own words as saying to Freud : "But you can be sure of one thing: I shall never abandon any part of your theory that is essential to me, as I am far too committed to it."  (quoted., ibid., 87)  Freud invited them to dinner at his apartment everyday and spent the whole of each evening with them as well as a full day on the Sunday.  Martin Freud, Sigmund's son described the proud and ego-ridden Jung thus:  "a commanding presence.  He was very tall and broad-shouldered, holding himself more like a soldier than a man of science and medicine..." (ibid., 87)  He criticized Jung for ignoring both his mother and "us children" and having time only for the great man himself.  Also Jung did practically all the talking, seeking all the while to impress the founder of psychoanalysis.  Jung was to say of Freud after this meeting: "I found him extremely intelligent, shrewd, altogether remarkable." (ibid., 88)  Freud later told his loyal follower, Dr Ernest Jones that Jung had a more sophisticated set of neuroses than anyone else he knew.  After these initial meetings it is reported on good evidence that Freud saw in Jung his scientific "son and heir."  Freud also brought Jung and Binswanger on a visit to the Wednesday Psychological Society which was renamed in 1908 to the Vienna Psychoanalytical Society.

Hayman points out the basic underlying eroticism between Freud and Jung.  Both men had subscribed to the theory that human beings were basically bisexual in nature.  Jung has mentioned many times in his writings that Freud was a handsome man.  Here again is how Hayman puts it:

How would Freud have analysed behaviour like his own had he encountered it in a patient?  Both men were overexcited about their new friendship, which would grow more intimate through correspondence than it could have done if they were meeting regularly.  A lonely and insecure man who did not confide in his wife, Freud thought that he had found a replacement for the man who had been his closest friend, Wilhelm Fliess. "In my emotional life an intimate friend and a hated enemy have always been necessities."  (Ibid., 90)

Freud also became jealous of Jung, while the younger man fawned upon the older.  Freud admits to Jung in a letter: "I have always felt there is something about my personality, my ideas and my manner of speaking that people find strange and repellent, whereas all hearts open to you." (quoted ibid., 93)  Jung writes back to Freud some time later looking for a picture of his hero "not as you used to look but as you did when I got to know you." (ibid., 93) 

Later, Jung also admitted to Freud that he had had a homosexual experience early in life.  That letter contains the enigmatic but revealing sentence: "When I was a boy, I submitted to a man I once venerated." (Ibid., 94)

Hayman then states:

Until he was in his thirties, at least, Jung was obviously apprehensive about emotional involvement, which affected many of his relationships with both men and women, even when emotion played only a small part of them. (Ibid., 94)