Saturday, October 18, 2008

Journeying with Jung 18

The Woman Inside Me: Chapter 17

This short chapter deals with the discovery of yet another essential Jungian archetype, namely that called AnimaHayman informs us that just as Philemon, the Wise Old Man archetype developed out of Elijah, yet another archetype called Ka developed out of PhilemonKa was the short for Carl his own Christian name.  Soon he recognised that Ka was none other than his very own soul and it had a woman's voice, hence this archetype was female in gender:

I was very interested that a woman should intervene from inside my thoughts.  Probably, I thought, it has something to do with the soul in the primitive sense, and I wondered why the soul should be termed anima.  Why should it be represented as feminine?  Later on I came to see that this internal feminine figure plays a typical or archetypal role in the consciousness of a man, and I called it the anima.  (Quoted Hayman, 183)

Hayman explains clearly that Jung believed that every man inherits a collective image of woman - his anima.  He then projects this image onto the female companion he has chosen because intuition told him she would be capable of receiving his projection. (See ibid., 185)  During this time Jung had a further liaison with yet another female trainee therapist - this time a woman called Toni Wolff whose analyst he was.  The WIKI interestingly gives good background on Toni:

Toni (Antonia Anna) Wolff (1888 - 1953), was a patient and then a lover of Carl Jung. Wolff later became a Jungian psychoanalyst. The extramarital affair between Carl Jung and Toni Wolff was openly enacted through a course of ten years. Jung had been looking for the "anima woman," eventually coming to call Toni his "second wife", his legal wife being Emma Jung.  (See this Link here)

Hayman points out that Toni became virtually a member of the Jung family - the children addressed her as 'Aunt.'  Franz Jung described her as 'all spirit. It was almost as if she had no body.' (Quoted Hayman, 186) Toni deeply believed in polygamy as indeed did Jung.  His assistant Carl Meier recalled that Jung gave serious consideration to the thought of divorcing Emma.  Also Emma seriously considered doing the same.  Jung developed his theory of the anima with Toni Wolff in mind.  She reminded him of Sabina who reminded him of Helly his cousin who in turn reminded him of the olive-skinned maid that nursed him as a boy when his mother was sick.

Jung, unlike Nietzsche, put art on a much lower plane than religion, and once he had silenced the voice that told him he was doing artistic work, he could now tell himself that he was working scientifically on his own nightmares, fantasies and hallucinations.  Hayman continues: "In this way he succeeded in staving off madness, and his patients never lost faith in him.  At the end of 1913, sixteen days after Jung let himself 'plummet into the dark depths,' Harold McCormick wrote to re-assure his father-in-law, John D. Rockefeller, that Edith was' in absolutely safe and trustworthy hands, for no finer man ever breathed than Dr Jung." (Ibid., 189)

Above I have uploaded a picture called 'luoghi dell'uomo' from a series of works called archeologia dell'anima by the wonderful artist Livia Alessandrini. See this site for examples of her work: Livia Alessandrini

Journeying with Jung 17

Chapter 16: Creative Illness:

It has often been said that the illnesses of creative artists are worthy of in-depth study.  In fact, illnesses played a central role in the life and work of many writers, painters and sculptors of the Romantic Movement, for example, Samuel Taylor Coleridge.  Indeed, I recall when I was studying this writer, poet and philosopher for an article that I came across a book devoted to the theme of illnesses and their role in the creative processes.  Be that as it may, it is quite common to hear - almost at the level of cliché these days - the phrase "creative illness" in general conversation.  It is also my own experience that having spent some seven weeks in a psychiatric hospital ten years ago that I, too, experienced a creative release and ended up writing a novel in a period of some six weeks after I was released.  Needless to say, it was not published, but that was not the aim at all.  The aim was to give expression to my feelings and pent-up emotions.  I remember a poet at a conference saying once that it was more important psychologically that people write poetry than that they read it.  This is very true, indeed.  To this extent, then, we may truly say that a break-down may actually be a break-through for many.  In 1913 Jung was 38 years of age and approaching a mid-life crisis.  By his fortieth year , he said, he had fulfilled all his boyhood ambitions.

It is no surprise then to learn that Jung - as Freud had before him - experienced a nervous break-down or break-through or creative illness, call it what you will.  Hayman refers to the fact that Henri F. Ellenberger (1905-1993) - a Canadian-Swiss psychiatrist, medical historian, and criminologist, sometimes considered the founding historiographer of psychiatry - compared the solitude and depression in Jung's life between 1913-1919 with Freud's period of what he called neurasthenia and hysteria.  (See Hayman, 173)

Throughout the autumn of 1913 Jung experienced several disturbing dreams, day-dreams and trances.  He had one such disturbing trance on a train which entered a tunnel close to the German border.  In it he clearly saw powerful floods drown out a relief map of Europe.  Two weeks later this same vision was to return but this second time the waves were not of water but of blood. This, he interpreted as a premonition of the great war to inundate Europe the following year.  It is interesting to note that Carl Meier said that Jung's break-down could be classified 'phenomenologically a schizophrenic episode.' (Ibid., 175)

Return to his Spiritual Roots or Depths:

Jung was always spiritually and mystically oriented - unlike Freud who possibly repressed his more religious/spiritual impulses. Hayman is interesting to read here on Jung's conversion after, if not in and through, is break-down:

Jung says he underwent a conversion in which he rejected scientific activity as he had previously understood it.  he had stopped believing in himself as a receiver of revelations...To regain his soul, he must stop trying to 'fend off' the other, more powerful spirit, 'the spirit from the depths of time immemorial and for all time to come'.  He should never have doubted its superiority to a spirit that 'changes with generations and withers with the flowers of summer'.  For the Spirit of the Times, the soul is 'something dependent on the person...a thing whose range we can grasp'.  But the Spirit of the depths knows that the soul is an independent, living being.  (Ibid., 175)

It is interesting, too, to note that it was not a mere question of deciding to opt for the Spirit of the Depths over against its rival the Spirit of the Times.  There was no choice involved at all as now the former had consumed him totally.

During his creative illness Jung wrote, drew and painted all his dreams, visions and trances and bound them into an unpublished 'Red Book'.  There were some 600 folio pages in this book where he poured out all the inspiration and symbols he was gaining form his unconscious mind.  It is also interesting to note that in one such dream he shot "Siegfried", the character which Sabina Spielrein had conjured up in her creative relationship with Jung.  His dreams were telling him, he wrote, that he had shot dead the symbol of his 'heroic idealism'.  However, we cannot help but feel that Jung is not being too honest here.  It would seem to this reader at least that this dream meant that he had finally got over his deep psychological need for Sabina.  

The Killing of Heroes:

Jung went on at length during this period to expatiate on the significance of the killing of heroes in one's dreams.  'The killing of the hero,' he said, 'then means that one is made into a hero, and something hero-like must happen.'  Next, he had a further fantasy in which he himself became God.  In this he had become thereby 'more identical with the collective unconscious.' (See Hayman, 176-177)

He dreamt also that he had met Elijah and his beautiful blind companion Salome.  The beautiful Salome told Jung that he had now become the Christ.    This is what he had in mind by what he later termed 'self-deification.'  Hayman points out that it is more than significant that at this stage Jung had deep down been reeling from the fact that he had lost the two major supports in his life namely, Freud and Sabina, both Jews.  Freud and Sabina were literally dead to him and he was now to become the saviour of his own soul - his own Christ or saviour of his inner Self. (See ibid., 177)

Another Wise Old Man figure or archetype that was to develop out of Elijah was the figure he called Philemon - his Wise Guide for the remainder of his life - and old man with horns and wings.  (See ibid., 177-178)  This figure was to teach his 'psychic objectivity.' (178)

The Insane:

Was Jung insane at this juncture in his life?  I'm asking the question, as does Hayman, as to whether the great psychiatrist - who was demonstrably going through a break-down or even a schizophrenic episode - was having schizophrenic hallucinations and delusions.  However, Hayman adds the wonderful insight that Newton was certifiably insane for a period of his life and that this certainly did not and does not invalidate his theory of gravity.  The author of the biography goes on to contend that such literary luminaries as Coleridge, Baudelaire, Nietzsche and Rimbaud, to mention just a handful of creative geniuses, had come up with marvellously deep insights into the human mind while they were seriously deranged on drugs or even delusions of grandeur.  (See 178)

Another insight I learned from this chapter was that Jung had the tendency to 'mythologise his experiences.' (Ibid., 178)   Also I now realise that the impact that the break-up with Freud had on him was tantamount to a volcanic eruption or even to an earthquake as the aftershocks lasted for some seven years according to his son Franz.  Here is what his son had to say about this period in his father's life:

Can you imagine what it must be to think that you are going mad?  That you might fall forever into the void?... For years after he and Freud parted, my father could do no work.  He placed a gun in his nightstand, and said that when he could bear it no longer he would shoot himself... For seven years he did nothing except his painting...Think of my mother...Can you imagine living with a man who slept with a gun by his bed and painted pictures of circles all day?  (Quoted ibid., 180)

An Insight into Schizophrenia:

Knowing several schizophrenics, I am also delighted to learn knew insights into the illness, viz., that the sufferer often personifies the contents of their consciousness and that he or she tends to believe in ghostly links between  unconnected events and make the paranoid assumption that everything refers to him or her.  I also learned that the schizophrenic world is a particularly solipsistic one.  This is a nice link here, I feel, with the field of philosophy.

Roots of a New Movement:

Jung wrote to Alphonse Maeder in late 1913 stating that he would not fail to create a new yearbook for his supporters in Zurich - in opposition to the Freudian yearbook.  He tentatively named the new yearly Psychological Investigations. (See Hayman, 174)

Friday, October 17, 2008

Journeying with Jung 16

Chapter 15:  Giving His Throne Away:

Once again Hayman provides us with an interesting and alluring title.  Another apt designation for this chapter would be "The Widening Gap."  The gap I refer to here is the growing one between Freud and Jung during 1912 and to the final break up of their friendship in early 1913.

That the aetiology of many psychiatric and mental health problems could be simply traced back solely to early problems with sexuality has long been a major criticism of early psychoanalysis, and Freud laid a tremendous emphasis on this tenet.   Jung had problems with such a presentation of psychoanalysis, too.  In this chapter we read that Freud wrote angrily to his protégé to protest that he was breaking the rules or tenets of his thought - 'We have mentioned that the origins of anxiety was the prohibition of incest; now you are saying the opposite: that the prohibition of incest originated in anxiety, which is very similar to what was been said before the advent of psychoanalysis.' (Quoted Hayman, 155)  Jung did not back down, being as strong as Freud in his own convictions and wrote back that he would 'have to go my own way.' (Ibid., 156)

At Fordham, a Catholic University in the USA, Jung argued for a new view of libido and presented a dissident version of early human psychological development.  He defined libido in terms of energy conservation: "When too much libido is invested in one activity, too little goes to another, and the task of psychoanalysis is to adjust the balance.  In his lectures Jung underlined the fact that all analysts should be analysed, stating that all need 'the objective judgement of someone else' - otherwise the analyst gets stuck.   Now this was an indirect criticism of Freud who had analysed himself and had, therefore, got stuck. (See Hayman, 157)

Contrary to Freudian doctrine, Jung stated that

'A purely sexual etiology of of neurosis strikes me as much too narrow'.  James Putnam, who was in the audience, hoping to meet him afterwards for a conversation, was surprised to hear him say that infantile fixations were virtually negligible  as a cause of neurosis.  (Ibid., 158)

I am surprised at Jung's vehement contradiction of Freudian principles in his letters to the 'grand old man of psychoanalysis', viz.,

'I found that my version of psychoanalysis won over many people who had previously been put off by the problem of sexuality in neurosis.' (Quoted ibid., 160)

He is waving his disagreement in the old man's face, and is quite boastfully convinced that he is right.  Indeed, he told Freud that he hoped the latter would 'gradually come to accept certain innovations...'  in the theory of psychoanalysis.   How naive of Jung if he really did think this change was possible.  I feel that he was only being deferential to his master and knew instinctively that the break between them would come sooner rather than later.  In a late letter to Freud he openly criticises the character of the founder:

If you should ever get rid of all your complexes and stop playing the father to your sons and take a good look at your own weak spots instead of aiming continually at theirs, then I will amend my ways... (Ibid., 163)

I'm sure Freud was consumed with anger when he read those few lines above.  On the 3rd of January 1913 he wrote his last letter to Jung and broke off their correspondence for good.  The gap between the two men was simply insurmountable.

At an international medical conference in London in August 1913 Jung stated his belief that 'psychoanalytic theory must be freed from the purely sexual standpoint.  In place of it I should like to introduce an energetic viewpoint.'  (Quoted ibid., 167)  It was during this lecture that he first used the term 'analytical psychology' for what he called 'the new psychological science.'

Insight into Jung's character: 

James J. Putnam (1846-1918), the President of the great pan-American psycho-analytic group, who was Professor of Neuropathology at Harvard University and the great supporter and populariser of psycho-analysis in America, had this to say about Jung's personality:

It is a fault in Dr. Jung...that he is too self-assertive and I suspect that he is lacking in some needful kinds of imagination, that he is, indeed, a strong but vain person, who might and does do much good but might also tend to crush a patient... (Quoted ibid., 159)

On the following page Hayman says that Jung was quite similar to Moses and Rudolf Steiner insofar as he had more faith in the voice inside his head than in the voices of other people. 

Dr. Jones, the great English follower or Freud saw Jung as being in fact a narcissist, fixated with a God Complex and lost to the world in occultism and mysticism of all shades and varieties.  (I paraphrase Hayman here,  see 163).

Then Lou Andreas-Salomé reported that Dr Jung was 'dogmatic and power-hungry...his seriousness now is made up of pure aggression, ambition and intellectual brutality.' (Quoted ibid., 169)

All of these criticisms and considered opinions I take on board.  That leaders of movements, psychological ones as well as any other, can be egotistical, power-hungry, self-obsessed, narcissistic and ambitious to a fault is unsurprising.  That Jung was such is equally unsurprising.

Wednesday, October 15, 2008

Journeying with Jung 15

Chapter 14: Enough Women:

Freud's Ego Again

One aspect of Freud's personality that jumps out at one from this book is the extent to which he believed in his own theories at the level of a fundamentalist believer in a new and all-embracing religion.  His language about psychoanalysis is, in short, that of a religious fanatic:

According to Jung, Freud asked him to promise that he would never abandon the sexual theory, and became emotional, saying: 'You see, we must make a dogma of it, an unshakable bulwark.'  To the question: 'Against what?' he answered: 'Against the tide of mud - of occultism.'  As Jung saw it, 'unconscious religious factors' were erupting in Freud.  (Hayman, 141)

It would be hard to disagree with Jung in his contention here given the over-the-top fundamentalist language Freud used of his own theory.  However, it is equally difficult to disagree, indeed, with Barry Silverstein's contention (and Silverstein is a professor of psychology at William Paterson College in New Jersey) that Jung's memories of his father as a man who wanted him to believe - not to think - were sometimes projected onto Freud who was very much a father figure for him.  (See Hayman, 141-142 and this link Here).

As well as religiously over-wrought language Freud also used metaphors taken from the twin fields of battle and discovery, viz.,

'I do not know why you are so afraid of my criticism on questions of mythology.  I will be very glad when you plant the flag of libido and repression in that territory and return as a victorious conqueror to our medical homeland.'  (Quoted Hayman, 142)

Hayman goes on to mention that here Freud was reasserting himself as commander-in-chief of his troops, situating mythology away out there in the distant far-flung lands, very far away indeed from their natural homeland, namely pure Freudian psychoanalysis.  So the father of the new science wanted to reassert his autocratic control of his 'science' of the mind.

However, Jung was far too much a free spirit and a free thinker to bend the knee at the Freudian shrine.  He went on and on in his pursuit of evidence for his psychological theories in the stuff of mythology.  Indeed, if Jung were a polar explorer he certainly wished to plant his very own flag in those far-flung areas, not necessarily that of Freud.  He asked advice less and less of his father figure, out from whose shadow he was progressively beginning to climb.  He went on also making independent efforts to redefine libido and other psychological qualities too.

Jung read widely in all types of mythology, astrology and arcane sciences - as well as the orthodox ones, stating in metaphorical language that he would return 'with rich plunder for our knowledge of the human psyche.' (Ibid., 143)  Freud told another close colleague, Dr Sandor Ferenczi that Jung wanted to 'lead a crusade' into the 'field of occultism.'   He warns Jung in a letter to wary of 'mysticism' and not to stay too long in 'the tropical colonies'.  You have to reign in the homeland.'  Again we are not surprised by Freud's use of language and his heavy use of metaphors.  (Ibid., 142-143)  All the while Jung was reading widely for his next published book called Transformations and Symbols of the Libido.  In mid-August 1911 part one of this book is published in the yearbook.

Those Women Again:

Early in the year Sabina Spielrein took her finals and left for Munich and later in August moved to Vienna from where she sent Jung a copy of her paper on the death instinct for the yearbook.  Like Otto Gross's , her ideas, memories and emotions interpenetrated his and some of this was absorbed into Transformations.  Alluding to how their relationship had given birth to an imaginary psychic son called Siegfried she wrote in the letter which enclosed her article: 'Receive now the product of our love, the project which is your little son, Siegfried.' (Ibid., 145)

Freud arrived in Kusnacht to stay with Jung but there was tension between the two men - he had read the first part of Transformations and had realised how far Jung was now going it alone on his very own explorations.  He said nothing to Jung and the tension increased. Emma noticed it, needless to say and Freud found it easier to talk to her stating that his children had become more troublesome as they grew older.  Emma knew he was referring to his own children, but she felt instinctively that Freud numbered her husband among his 'sons'.

Freud also noted how all the women fawned on Jung.  By this time both Maria and Martha, of whom I have written about in previous posts, had been promoted to the rank of assistants.  According to Freud Jung's affair with her lasted at least until the end of 1912.  Otto Gross had certainly influenced Jung in his lust for several women outside of his wife.  Hayman reports that it was said that once his mother appeared at the Burgholzli and said to him:  "There are not enough women in your life." (Ibid., 147)

Insight into Schizophrenia:

In September the International Psychoanalytic Association held its conference in Weimar and in a paper he delivered Jung asserted  that to understand schizophrenic delusions, historical parallels must be adduced, because the patient is suffering from 'the reminiscences of mankind'.  Unlike the hysteric, the schizophrenic thinks in terms of ancient images that have universal validity.  (Ibid., 148)

Break with Freud in the offing:

During 1912 Freud wished to avoid a quarrel with Jung as his relationship with Dr Alfred Adler, another loyal 'follower', was rapidly deteriorating.  Whereas Freud believed that relationships between siblings mattered less emotionally than relationships with parents, Adler took the opposite view.  By 1908 Adler had been criticising Freud's view of the libido's dominance in psychic life, and at the 1911 conference he suggested that Freud was over-estimating the importance of sexuality.

Insight into Freudian Versus Jungian Techniques:

In an article for the yearbook in 1912 Freud observed that analysts should never volunteer personal information, never encourage new forms of sublimation and never lend books and articles to patients.  Jung did all these things.  (See Hayman, 153)  Jung was still lost in his mythological, alchemical and astrological researches much to Freud's annoyance and the latter wrote to his protégé stating that he was hiding behind his 'religious-libidinal cloud.' (Quoted, ibid., 153)  In increasingly irregular letters Jung managed to sustain a friendly tone while Freud was becoming ever more bitter and resentful.  All the while Jung was not as perturbed as the founding father and he maintained that any good teacher is poorly rewarded by pupils who remain pupils.  It's hard to disagree with Jung's insight in this last statement.  However, the friction between the two men was increased by the fact that Sabina was now attending Freud for analysis and Jung had not quite rid himself of his obsession with her.

Above I have uploaded a picture of Freud and Jung - at either end of the front row - at a conference in 1909 - in America, I think.

Sunday, October 12, 2008

Journeying with Jung 14

Those Bewitching Women: 

Before I begin my reflections on this chapter, I wish momentarily to refer to Jung's obsession with the fairer sex.  In January 1910 Jung began an affair with Maria Moltzer, a nurse at the psychiatric hospital of Burgholzli - she was a strong-minded woman, a year older than he.  During this period he agreed with Emma to have another child and wrote to Freud stating the very unorthodox and counter-cultural idea that "It seems to be that the prerequisite for a good marriage is licence to be unfaithful."  ( Quoted, Hayman, 126)

Chapter 13:  Sleepless Nights:

This chapter covers the period August to November 1910 when Jung was 35 years old.   During this period he read voraciously everything he could lay his hands on in the field of mythology and ancient culture much against Freud's advice.

A Preliminary note on Apollo and Dionysus:

Of all the Olympian deities Apollo is one of the most important and he fulfilled many roles, viz., youthful ideals; god of light and sun; truth and prophecy; archery; medicine and healing; music; poetry and the arts in general.  Hence he is particularly many-sided and comprehensive in his powers.  He had a twin sister called Artemis who was the chaste huntress.  He is the son of Zeus, the father of all the gods, and Leto.  He became also to be known widely as the patron of Delphi, i.e., he became the oracular god supreme.  However, in later literary contexts Apollo has come to to be the ultimate representative of Harmony, Order and Reason.  He represents the Greek ideal of the Golden Mean - moderation in all things and virtue in action.

In mentioning these three qualities one is immediately forced to mention the role of Dionysus in striking contrast.  Indeed the two are very often mentioned together to put the tension between both in context.  Dionysus represents Disharmony, Disorder and Ecstasy or Excess. He represents over-indulgence in both eating and drinking - gluttony. Indeed, we have inherited the two wonderful adjectives Apollonian and Dionysian from these two wonderfully colourful deities. 

The Influence of Nietzsche:

Jung was temperamentally, intellectually and spiritually growing apart from Freud all this while, and nothing illustrated this drift apart than his reading widely the philosophy of Nietzsche.  Both these men, unlike Freud the Jew, were sons of clergymen who died young and also of women who descended from generations of priests.  Jung grew up Basel where Nietzsche had been a professor at the university and stated in a letter that he 'grew up in an atmosphere still vibrating from the impact of his teachings.' (quoted Hayman, 132)

While Nietzsche may not have been a believer in God he still retained a religious temperament in the romantic sense of that word, while Freud was a militant atheistJung took to Nietzsche like a duck to water because the latter's work was steeped in mythology, a subject very close to his heart.  Hayman is interesting here:

Unlike Judaism and Christianity, Greek myth 'deified all forms into significant humanity.'  There was no ascetism in it:  The Olympian gods sanctified both good and evil.  In the plays of Aeschylus and Sophocles, the hero had always, according to Nietzsche, been Dionysus confronting Apollo.In one note Nietzsche quotes the primitive German belief that all gods must die.  He cherished 'the hope for rebirth of a Dionysus.  Then everything will be Dionysus.'  (Op. cit., 134-135)


The Influence of Friedrich Max Muller:

Muller was a famous Sanskrit scholar who popularised the term Aryans and argued that all mythological systems from wherever in the world were based on the orbiting of the earth around the sun. Needless to say there is much mention of the sun being associated with many gods within the pantheons of the many different traditions and mythologies.  The words "fire" and "sun" are consequently linked with the vital force of life within us, with the "libido" (a word Freud used) and this "fire" readily represents, I believe, the very soul or heart of life.

Hence Jung built up his unorthodox notions of the role of "God" or "gods" in human life.  He was fascinated by the notion of a God being simultaneously Creator and Destroyer and an equation of God=Father=Son=Fire.

At this juncture Freud wrote to Jung warning him against over-generalization or as it put it interpreting 'the whole facade'.  This I find quite funnily ironic as this was one of Freud's own major flaws.  He was wary of Jung's breadth of reading in the ancient mythologies and warned him that it was important to take context into account.

Sabina appears on the scene again:

This time Dr Bleuler appoints Jung to read Sabina's Doctoral Thesis on schizophrenia.  Needless to say the old affair bubbled up into life once again.  Her thesis, he reported, had "thrown him into raptures" because it proved that psychotic thought mechanisms corresponded to patterns in myths while she was afraid to read his work 'fearful of being enslaved by emotion all over again.'  (Quoted ibid., 135)  While all this was going on, Maria Moltzer, the nurse, was still on the scene, while two other ladies were quite besotted with him, another Russian girl whose thesis he was also supervising, namely Esther Aptekmann and a patient in the hospital called Martha Boddinghaus.  (See ibid., 135)

According to Hayman this is what Jung's take on his affair with Sabina and his supervision of her thesis meant for him:

Trying to awaken religious and mythological ideas in her, he was making his first experiment in countering neurosis by alerting patients to the presence of the numinous.  But with Sabina, he inflamed both her desire for him and his for her.  (Ibid., 139)

The Death Wish:

Freud had also dealt with this idea though Jung and indeed Sabina both thought of it as very important in the human psyche.  However, Sabina had a take on it from her Doctoral Thesis and other papers which she was afraid Jung might steal from her and write about.

Nietzsche had written: 'Whoever wants to be creative in good and evil must first be an annihilator and destroy values,' but Jung excitedly thought he and Sabina had discovered that what looks like destruction may be creation: something must die for something else to be born...Mentally, thanks to strength, intelligence and determination, they had both achieved a kind of rebirth from a kind of death, and they both believed that in schizophrenia[hrenia, consciousness gives way to archaic patterns of thought when the rational ego is overpowered.  In her essay 'Destruction as a Cause of Coming into Being' she said the two basic drives were for self-preservation and for the preservation of the species through sexuality... (Ibid., 137)

Wishing to follow her own independent path, both in life and psychiatry, she left Zurich after filing her thesis.  Her result was so good that it confirmed her in her belief that she was destined to achieve something exceptional in psychiatry.

Above I have uploaded a picture of an Ancient Roman statue of Dionysus (also known as Bacchus), god of wine, leaning on a herme (c. 150 AD, Prado, Madrid).