Saturday, November 15, 2008

Journeying with Jung 32

Chapter 28:  The Jewish Gospel

Once again Hayman's chapter title is gripping.  The Jewish Gospel is that of Freud, namely the Message of Psychoanalysis.  As this chapter deals with 1934 we also have ootlined for us the underlying corrosive power of the Nazi ideology all around Europe, especially in German-speaking countries like Austria and Switzerland.

Again I am rather saddened by Jung's attitude to the then position of Jews and Jewish scholarship during the 1930s, though indeed this should be in no way surprising.  I doubt if any of us could have been any stronger.  Hayman tells us that in 1934, Jung wrote a cautiously worded letter saying that he did not want to denigrate the Jews but 'to single out and formulate the mental idiosyncrasies that distinguish Jews from other people.' (Quoted Hayman, 318).  Thomas Mann, the famous novelist, who had fled Hitler's Germany for Switzerland  in late 1933 thought that Jung was being disingenuous and that he ought to declare his political affiliation openly.  The wily, disingenuous and careful Jung did not, of course.  From time to time he did show his hand by saying stuff like:

"The Jews share this peculiarity with women: because they are physically weaker, they have to aim at chinks in their enemy's armour... The Jewish race as a whole - in my experience at least - possess an unconscious which can be compared with the Aryan only to a limited extent."  (Quoted ibid., 318)

That Jung was courting Nazi favour above is shown by his use of the then endemic terminology favoured by them.  Hayman quotes widely from Mann who stated his view openly about the Jung of the 1930s in the sentence: Jung was always a half-Nazi." (Quoted ibid., 319)  Without a doubt Jung swallowed a lot of the Aryan terminology if not even some of its tenets.

It is also disturbing, though understandable, to find that the Zentralblatt (of which Jung was editor) went on publishing anti-Semitic articles until 1939 and condemning "Jewish psychology".  In 1936 Jung appointed Dr Goring as co-editor, on the understanding that the Zentralblatt would not be censored or prevented from reviewing books by Jews.  However, for the sake of clarity, it is important to point out that Jung resigned as president of the society in 1940 and the leadership devolved to Dr Goring, after which the Zentralblatt was brought fully in line with Nazi ideology.

Seminars on Nietzsche's Zarathustra:

Christiana Morgan put a stop to the seminars about her - they had been going on for some two and a half years - and in May 1934 a new series of seminars on Nietzsche's Zarathustra began.

Jung and James Joyce:

At the end of 1934, following the advice of a friend, James Joyce consulted Jung about his schizophrenic daughter, Lucrezia.  Jung had her moved to a private clinic in Kusnacht, where she seemed at first to improve.  According to Jung, Joyce and Lucrezia were 'a classic example' of his anima theory:

She was definitely his femme inspiratrice, which explains his obstinate reluctance to have her certified.  His own anima, i.e., unconscious psyche, was so solidly identified with her that to have her certified would have been as much as an admission that he himself had a latent psychosis... his 'psychological style' is definitely schizophrenic, with the difference, however, that the ordinary patient cannot help himself talking and thinking in such a way, while Joyce willed it and moreover developed it with all his creative forces, which incidentally explains why he himself did not go over the border.  But his daughter did, because she was no genius like her father, but merely a victim of her disease.  (Quoted ibid., 325)

According to Hayman, this commentary can be read as an indirect statement about Jung's own use of his creative forces to conquer the psychosis that had threatened him in childhood and after the breach with Freud.

Other Random Points:

I am fascinated with Jung's encounter with subatomic physics in the person of Wofgang Pauli. Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (1900 –1958) was an Austrian theoretical physicist noted for his work on spin theory, and for the discovery of the exclusion principle underpinning the structure of matter and the whole of chemistry.  This man was a very conflicted individual indeed.  Pauli was to win the Nobel Prize in 1945, but he had been in Zurich since 1928, when, at the age of 28, he was appointed professor of theoretical physics at the Federal Polytechnic.  The previous year, his mother had poisoned herself after finding out that her husband was being unfaithful.  Before he had recovered his equilibrium, Pauli married a cabaret singer, but the marriage lasted only about twelve months, and in the winter of 1931-2 he was in a desperate state.  Hence his father brought him to Jung.  However, Jung referred the case to a young doctor an analyst whom he himself was then analysing, one Erna Rosenbaum.  However, the point here, outside poor Pauli's real suffering is that Jung is now introduced to subatomic physics - it's philosophy and principles rather than its specific mathematics, of course.  I'll let Hayman take up the story from here:

But subatomic physics seemed to involve the scientist in acts of faith.  Atoms might be invisible and intangible, but atomic explosions were more powerful than other kinds.  The crucial field of activity had become as invisible as god.  Excitingly, it looked as if spiritual speculations could claim citizenship  of the same realm as scientific thinking.

In their different ways both Jung and Pauli were interested in causality and acausality.  For Einstein, everything had to have a cause. 'God does not play dice,' he insisted.  Jung had always disliked the principle of causality.  In a 1928 seminar he had called it 'the modern prejudice of the West.'  The East, he said, 'considers coincidences as the reliable basis of the world rather than causality.  Synchronism is the prejudice of the East.'  The following year, in the same series of seminars, he said that what looks like coincidence may actually be the occurrence of the same two events which 'express the same time content.' (Ibid., 328)

It was not until May 1930 that he invented the term synchronicity - acausal parallelism - he had been talking about the I Ching (Again see ibid., 328-329; See also my own posts on on this subject here: Synchronicity )

Jung, Religion and Death:

Jung was often asked what he believed about death, and in 1934 which his sixtieth birthday approaching, he took the view that the individual's nature is gradually unfolded over the first twenty years of his life, the last twenty should be spent on preparing for death.  He said that religions are 'complicated systems of preparation for death,' and in the 'two greatest living religions, Christianity and Buddhism, the meaning of existence is consummated in its end.'  Far from being products of the human intellect, religions 'have developed, plant-like,  as natural manifestations of the human psyche.'  That is why 'religious symbols have a distinctively "revelatory" character; they are usually spontaneous products of unconscious psychic activity.'  (See ibid., 329)

Conscious versus Unconscious: A Short Note

"Only what we call consciousness is contained in space and time, and the rest of the psyche, the unconscious, exists in a state of relative spacelessness and timelessness."  (Quoted ibid., 330).  This would explain such unusual occurrences or acausal incidents or synchronistic events, not quite simple coincidences like the time my father said he felt that his twin brother who lived in New Zealand at the time was not very well.  Some days later we received a telegram saying that he had died.

Above I have placed yet another photo I took on the Giant's Causeway, Co. Antrim, this August.

Journeying with Jung 31

Other Insights from Chapter 27:  Hitler is a Medicine Man

In search of a Weltanschauung:

Even a casual historian of culture or a neophyte in the history of ideas would find it difficult to disagree with Isaiah Berlin's claim that the opposition to the French Enlightenment, which heralded the primacy of reason above all the other qualities of humanity, is as old as the movement itself.  For example, while Voltaire believed that progress in the arts and sciences was counteracting 'ignorance, superstition, fanaticism, oppression and barbarism,' another philosopher of a romantic turn of mind, Rousseau, contended that civilisation itself had destroyed the simplicity and spontaneity that so naturally belonged to the human species. (See Hayman, 308)

Jung followed in the Romantic tradition of Rousseau who had contended that humankind's natural impulses could only lead to good behaviour - a very naive Romanticism indeed.  Rousseau believed in the primacy of conscience which spoke naturally with the voice of Reason. It's probably over-stating the case and misrepresenting Rousseau not a little to say that he heralded the cause of the noble savage, yet he did believe that humankind was instinctively good in its ability to learn naturally and spontaneously from the physical environment.  Here is what Hayman succinctly says

Thinking more simplistically in terms of a polarity between the civilised and the primitive, and lamenting the disappearance of a Weltanschauung in which all strata of experience were interconnected Jung believed that by demanding rational explanations for everything that happened, we erected an artificial barrier between the psychic and the objective.  (Ibid., 308)

Let me here quote the rather apt saying of our very own poet Patrick Kavanagh which is exceedingly ad rem:  "Let us not ask for reason's payment."  In fact the whole third stanza of this wonderful poem Advent is worth quoting here:

O after Christmas we'll have no need to go searching
For the difference that sets an old phrase burning
We'll hear it in the whispered argument of a churning
Or in the streets where the village boys are lurching.
And we'll hear it among simple decent men too
Who barrow dung in gardens and under trees,
Wherever life pours ordinary plenty.
Won't we be rich, my love and I, and please
God we shall not ask for reason's payment,
The why of heart-breaking strangeness in dreeping hedges
Nor analyse God's breath in common statement.
We have thrown into the dust-bin the clay-minted wages
Of pleasure, knowledge and the conscious hour
And Christ comes with a January flower.

Kavanagh is here at one with Jung in refusing to demand rational explanations for all that happens in life and in refusing to erect a barrier between the psychic and the objective.

The Shangri-La Escapism

This above is my title.  I quite fancy that Jung loved his theories and great "weltanschauung" so much that this led to a form of escapism from the horror of Nazism and Hitlerism that pervaded Germany and Austria at the time.  Switzerland became a snowy refuge, a sort of Shangri-La in the snowy mountains, untouched by the evil that stalked the lands below.  In writing these thoughts I'm trying to come to grips with Jung's thoughts and attitudes to the rise of Fascism under the form of Nazism or National Socialism

Now, Freud of course was a Jew by race but not by religion - in fact he was a self-proclaimed atheist. However, the narrow-minded and fundamentalist Nazis could only make one simple equation and that was the psychoanalysis was the ultimate Jewish science.  Let me return once again to Hayman here:

The Nazis were going to stigmatise psychoanalysis as a Jewish science.  This would be Jung's second chance to benefit from not being Jewish.  Freud had thought he needed a Christian president for the international association, and now, after setting up a rival orthodoxy, Jung suddenly had powerful and unscrupulous allies.  In Germany it seemed likely that analytical psychology could displace psychoanalysis.  Putting all Jewish lawyers and Doctors out of work at the same time as banning work by Jewish writers, composers and artists, the Nazis needed to rally as much support as they could from intellectuals and educated people, not only inside Germany but in other German-speaking countries.  (Hayman, 313)


It is important to state a few dates here for clarity.  The General Society for Psychotherapy had been founded in 1926 for Doctors using different psychiatric techniques.  In 1928, when Jung joined, over 80 % of the 399 members were German.  Among the ex-Freudians were Alfred Adler and Wilhelm Reich.  The others included Georg Groddeck, Karen Horney and Matthias Goring - the first cousin of the infamous Field Martial Hermann Goering.  Let's leave Hayman continue the story from here:

On 21 June 1933, Jung took over as president, and in the autumn it was arranged that he would control the international edition of the Zentralblatt [ that is the Zentralblatt fur Psychotherapie, the prestigious journal of The General Society for Psychotherapy], while Matthias Goring would be in charge of the aligned German edition.  (Ibid., 312)

It's also important to point out that Dr Ernst Kretschmer had resigned as president of this organisation and indeed as editor of this journal when he had come under pressure to align the society with Nazi ideology.  Jung had taken over as president after his resignation.  What does this tell us about Jung.  I suppose it tells us at least that he had not a very finely tuned or honed ethical stance.  Remember, as I have said he preferred a rather Shangri-La existence - a sort of naive political blindness, I would call it.

Jung was even interviewed on pro-Nazi radio during this time where the interviewer had condemned both Freud and Adler as being 'hostile to life.'  Jung was now the "fair-haired darling" (my own phrase) of psychology.  Hayman points out that Jung chose to use a word favoured by Nazi propaganda namely "corroded" during his interview:

Here Jung chose a word that often featured in propaganda against the Jews, and he used it again in one of his Berlin seminars, saying that a dream is a message that should not be 'corroded'.  For both the radio audience and the seminar, the word 'corroded' would have signalled agreement with the Nazis.  (Ibid., 312)

Later in this seminal chapter Hayman continues:

Though not admirable, Jung's behaviour is understandable.  he disliked what he saw of the Nazis - especially Goebbels - but he did not know how long they were going to be in power.  Now that Freud was handicapped by age (he was 77) and by Jewishness, analytical psychology could overtake psychoanalysis. at least in the German-speaking world, and Jung, who was 58, could become the leading depth-psychologist if he managed not to antagonise Germany's new rulers.  (Ibid., 313)

However, Jung did feel the need to defend himself.  he said he had wanted to keep an open mind about the Nazis:

Every archetype contains the lowest and the highest, evil and good, and is therefore capable of producing diametrically opposite results... With my medical attitude towards such things, I was in favour of waiting, for it is an attitude that allows no hasty judgements, does not always know from the outset what is better, and is willing to give things a "fair trial" '  (Quoted ibid., 313)

On pages 313 and 314 Hayman mentions some evidence - hearsay and the reports of some clients - which shows some disappointing traces of anti-Semitic views in Jung during the early thirties.  And then , this rather horrible generalisation which he wrote in a letter in 1951:  "if pride is a specific Greek vice then cupidity falls to the lot of the Jews." (Quoted ibid., 314)

Indeed Hayman's biography is wonderfully balanced an objective.  Truly, Carl Gustave Jung was a complex individual - full of many contradictions.  He is neither saint nor sinner, guru nor charlatan, but rather like most of us a conflicted and rather whole character (probably more whole than we are) who somehow managed to integrate the positive and negative, the good and the bad within him.

Once again I have uploaded a picture I took of the Giant's Causeway, Antrim, this August past.

Thursday, November 13, 2008

Journeying with Jung 30

Chapter 27:  Hitler is a Medicine Man:

Not alone is this title apt, it is also gripping.  A central image from this chapter, for me at least in being a crazy bibliophile, is that of the book burning of the Nazis in the year 1933, which year this chapter deals with in the life of Dr. Carl Gustave Jung.  Switzerland, which always had its financial house in order, remained largely unaffected and untroubled by the fallout of The Wall Street Crash of October 1929.  A patient of Jung commented on Switzerland during these frightful times thus:

'Like Shangri-La or the Magic Mountain, it was high up or mysterious and somehow magical or mystical, otherworldly, untroubled.'  (Quoted Hayman, 310)

I shall not offer any excuses for Jung's attitudes to Hitler and to the Jews as these attitudes were quite complex.  It is too simplistic to say that he was a Nazi sympathiser - which he definitely was not.  It is also too simplistic to say he was an anti-Semite - which he definitely was not.  However, he did express less than clear (and very complex) views on both areas.  However, I shall return to these contentious views later in these posts when I have done more extensive research of the subject.  However, I feel that our Dr Jung, who was a man essentially of the soul, was a little too isolated from the stark reality of war which ravaged the countries around his "Shangra-La" existence in Switzerland.

However, to return to the book burning incident - a potent example of what may be termed biblioclasm - alluded to in my opening paragraph I should like to quote from the great German-Jewish Romantic Heinrich Heine, who stated, "Where books are burned, human beings are destined to be burned too." 

Ironically enough, among the thousands of books burned on Berlin's Opernplatz in 1933, following the Nazi raid on the Institut für Sexualwissenschaft, were works by Heinrich Heine(1797 –1856). To commemorate the terrible event, one of the most famous lines of Heine's 1821 play Almansor was engraved in the ground at the site: "Dort, wo man Bücher verbrennt, verbrennt man am Ende auch Menschen." ("Where they burn books, they will ultimately also burn people.") In the original text, Heine had been referring to the burning of the Quran during the Spanish Inquisition.

In 1834, he made another remarkable prophecy in his work The History of Religion and Philosophy in Germany: "Yet, it will come and when you hear a crashing such as never before has been heard in the world's history, then you know that the German thunderbolt has fallen at last. At that uproar the eagles of the air will drop dead, and lions in the remotest deserts of Africa will hide in their royal dens. A play will be performed in Germany which will make the French Revolution look like an innocent idyll." (Quoted at this site Here )

Among the  20,000 books burned by the Nazi youth groups on that fateful and tragically symbolic day were those of Freud as well as works by Heinrich Heine, Thomas Mann, Karl Marx, Erich Maria Remarque, and H.G. Wells.  I often wonder were any of Jung's books burned?  I cannot get any evidence to suggest they were.

The Germans are a Dark and Chthonic Race:

It is important to state that Jung who was more concerned with "interior" psychological events than "exterior" political ones (my terms) and resisted commenting on public events.  This may seem more than a little careful and somewhat cowardly.  Yet, I cannot say I would have been any braver in my own stance on politics were I to have lived at the time.  Long before swastikas and other symptoms of neo-paganism had erupted all over Germany Jung had referred to what he termed the 'chthonic quality' of the German people, who, he felt, had only been half civilised by Christianity.  As Hayman so succinctly puts it:

Still unredeemed, their darker half  'remains connected with the residue of the prehistoric age, with the collective unconscious which is subject to a strange and constantly increasing activation'... and he wrote in 1916 that 'the "blonde beast" is likely to become more threateningly audible as it paces about in its subterranean prison.'  (Quoted ibid., 311)

Now the word Chthonic here is very interesting.   Chthonic refers to, designates, or pertains to, deities or spirits of the underworld (or the very centre of the earth), especially in relation to Greek religion.  It derives from the Greek χθόνιος  or khthonios which means  "of the earth".   Hence Jung means that the Germanic peoples were earthy, subterranean even, and while this word  refers to the possible abundance of the earth it is also redolent of death as the core of the earth or Hades or the Underworld would conjure up a certain shady  and deathly landscape.  This word also has other resonances as some chthonic cults practised ritual sacrifice that often happened at nighttime.  Offerings usually were burned whole or buried rather than being cooked and shared among the worshippers.  So this word has a rather eerie and prescient content to it when it was used by Jung.

(To be continued)

Picture of my brother Pat and I atop the basalt colums of the Giant's Causeway, o Antrim, August 2008

Wednesday, November 12, 2008

Journeying with Jung 29

Wherever I go I cannot go too far without returning to some thought or intuition provoked in me by reading from anywhere in Carl Gustave Jung's vast body of written work.  I now return to Hayman's biography of the founder of Analytical Psychology. 

Chapter 26 - The Purity of Divine Dirt:

I loved the quotation about Jung from the pen of Barbara Hannah quoted at the beginning of the chapter.  (Barbara Hannah was born in England but went to Zurich in 1920 to study with Carl Jung. She lived in Switzerland the rest of her life and was a practising psychotherapist and teacher at the C. G. Jung Institute. She was the author of Encounters with the Soul: Active Imagination.)  Anyway, this is what Hannah had to say about our man:

The opposites were so much united in him, and he was by this time so whole, that more one-sided people were inevitably drawn to him to get a least a glimpse back into their own lost wholeness.  (Quoted Hayman, 298)

Jung on Art and Literature:

Jung was of the opinion that great art transcended the personal.  We have already alluded to the fact that he never regarded himself as an artist even though he pursued mandala drawing as a way of relaxing and engaged with the deep inner spiritual self.  In a lecture in 1922 he had said that he always protested against 'the reduction of art to personal factors.'  (Quoted ibid., 298)

Great literature, he said, draws its strength not from individual experience but from the life of mankind, while the great poets, such as Dante, Goethe and Nietzsche, speak 'with the voice of thousands and tens of thousands, prophesying changes in the consciousness of the period.'  It is when consciousness becomes lopsided in a society, or when wrong-headed attitudes become dominant, that archetypal ideas rise to the surface in dreams and artistic vision.  'A great work of art is like a dream,' and it meets the psychic needs of the public.  (Ibid., 299)

A great artist is similar to a medium who becomes a conduit for a higher power - call it imagination or inspiration or divine spark.  Jung says that such a person who is an artist has some lack or inadequacy in his personality.  Then his creativity comes in from somewhere and monopolises his energy and, thereby, drains him of his humanity.  Jung then goes on to assert that such a person might behave like a spoilt child, might even become ruthless, selfish or even very vain.  In this way only might such a person maintain the vitality of his or her own ego. (see ibid., 299)

Another Metaphor: Depth Psychology as an archaeological Dig:

Once again, as I have stated many times before in these posts, images are significant when working with psychotherapy and psychology - especially when one is working with clients or patients.  This point comes up strongly for Jung when he meets the American therapist/analyst Christiana Drummond Morgan (born Christiana Drummond Councilman) (1897-1967) She is mostly remembered as the lover of American psychologist Henry Murray and, like many women of that time, as a muse whose real contribution to society was their ability to inspire a man. Unfortunately and sadly Christiana committed suicide at 69 years old.  When Carl Jung met Christiana in the late 1920s - 1927, to be precise -he stated that he considered her the manifestation of the perfect feminine, une femme inspiratrice whose role was to act as a muse to great men. Jung conducted a seminar, called the "Vision Seminars" in October 1930, analysing Christiana's many drawings and dreams. She had created mythic visions chronicling her struggle with the feminine and masculine forces in her world. 

Among the many things Jung stated during this seminar was the fact that he considered Christiana a typical intellectual, 'exceedingly rational' with a 'one-sided development of the thinking function (T) and therefore an inferior feeling function (F). (See ibid., 300).  I'll let Hayman take up the story here:

His primary concern in the seminars he said, was with individuation, and his main theme would be 'the development of the transcendent function out of dreams'... he was addressing the needs and the complexes of each individual in the room...

Because Christiana had been cut off from the unconscious, he said, it had been painful for her to move downwards into it... She needed to know more about 'the inside of the mountain'...

As Christiana dug her way down from New England puritanism to primary instinctuality, her regression had struck him as archaeological... He portrayed what had gone on as a journey  backwards and downwards through ancient matriarchal mystery religions to the deepest level of vegetation, where she represented herself as a tree rooted in the earth with arms branching into the heavens.  She resumed the journey forwards and upwards through classical, Mithraic and Christian mysteries.  (Ibid., 300-3001)


The Primacy of the Universal/Collective Unconscious (Archetypal) over the Particular/Personal Unconscious:

This is another obsession of Jung's as he gets older.  While he might have declared that his concern was with the individuation process in all sessions of analysis and in these seminars, his focus was almost completely on the symbolic and archetypal.  While Christiana's dreams and visions may have started off with all the usual personal stuff they began to come to 'the fundamental things' which laid the ground work  for 'the production of the symbols which brought about the solution of the problem.' (Quoted ibid., 301)

Hence in all of the later Jung's work, whether written or clinical. he always searched for ways in which the collective unconscious may have been at work.  Listen to this strong and almost surprisingly therapeutically unfriendly statement: "I omit personal details intentionally because they matter so little to me.  We are all spellbound by those external circumstances and they distract our attention from the real thing.' (Quoted ibid., 301)

Jung on the Ego and the Self

Our man is very clear here.  He says succinctly:

Nobody understands what the self is because the self is just what you are not - it is not the ego... The ego discovers itself as a mere appendix of the self... The ego is always far down in the muladhara and suddenly becomes aware of something up in the fourth story, above, in anahata, and that is the self' (Quoted ibid., 303)

It is important to note here that Muladhara  means "root place"  and that it is the first of the main seven chakras according to Hinduism; that Anahata  is the fourth primary chakra according to the Hindu Yogic and Tantric traditions and that the word means "unhurt, unstuck or unbeaten."  It is also important to point out that the image of the multi-storeyed house represented the human psyche for Jung with the lower storeys referring to the unconscious strata while the higher ones refer to the conscious strata of the psyche.

From such delving down into the unconscious one eventually does come back up renewed, if not covered in varying degrees by "the purity of the divine dirt."

Above a picture I took of the hexagonal columns of basalt rock at the Giant's Causeway, August 2008

Tuesday, November 11, 2008


Directions are important. Even if one does not quite know the twists and turns of a particular route, it is at least helpful to be aware what direction one is going in. And even if one becomes aware that one is heading the wrong way at least one can stop and think and save further confusion and lostness by altering course. As a lover of the music of the indefatigable, irrepressible and very talented Bob Dylan the following words have always jangled about somewhere in my brain:

"How does it feel
How does it feel
To be on your own
With no direction home
Like a complete unknown

Like a rolling stone?"

At fifty, at least, I have found some directions in my life. The route to whatever destination I'm heading for is way clearer than it was for me as a young man of 20. I write these autobiographical thoughts as I sit here during my break-time from class at the school where I am a resource teacher. Jung has said somewhere in his vast voluminous writings that we spend the first half of our lives setting ourselves up for working life by getting our careers built up and our families provided for. Then, after we have achieved all that, Jung says, we begin to question the meaning of it all, where we are going and how we can improve our satisfaction with whatever project we have undertaken. For Jung, the second part of life is all about the process he calls "individuation", that is the "integration" of the self and the finding of our real purpose in life. How true for him, indeed.

I also write these autobiographical reflections as I have finished the first module of a course in psychotherapy I have begun with PCI College under the auspices of Middlesex University, England. We have just completed a module entitled "the humanistic approaches to psychotherapy," and this has been singularly enriching for me - not so much the new theories and approaches encountered so much as the integration of the same into my own sense of my personal journey or project that is uniquely my life. In a certain sense this whole module was life-enhancing, very positive, personally re-inforcing and life-enriching. These seem like clichés when they are written down, but I assure the reader that they are far from being such for the writer of these thoughts.

Anyway, while Dylan's words jangle around in my brain, their meaning is the polar opposite to what I have written in prose form in the paragraphs above. The author of the song is singularly lost and is writing about that experience. In other words Dylan's protagonist or plaintive singer in this song is a poor alienated soul. As far as I can recall it was none other than Karl Marx himself who coined the term "alienation" in the context of the working person being alienated from the results of his work. Now Marx's theory of alienation as expressed in his writings refers to the separation of things that naturally should belong together, or to an antagonism between things that are normally and properly in harmony. In the concept's most important use, it refers to the social alienation of people from aspects of their "human nature." He also believed, needless to say, that alienation is a systematic result of capitalism.

Humanistic psychotherapy is based on a sincere belief in human nature, that deep within each human heart/soul/mind lies a thrust to wholeness and unity; that within each individual lies the solution (or more correctly 'the healing') of his or her crisis; that the client/patient knows best; that the role of the therapist is that of a companion on the way; that the therapist helps the client find their direction; that the client is the expert in his/her own life; that life is all about living in awareness of the deeper self and that the goal is essentially to actualize the real and essential self. Much of this language is based on the work of Carl Ransom Rogers and Abraham Maslow, two wonderful humanistic psychotherapists. However, their work has much in common with that of Carl Gustave Jung as any reader will see from the foregoing posts on this pioneering psychiatrist and depth psychologist. In other words what I have stated about the humanistic approaches in this last paragraph roughly also approximates to what Jung meant by the process of individuation.

To put an end to this autobiographical divertion, I should like to add that there is a DVD entitled No Direction Home. It is a documentary film by Martin Scorsese that traces the life of Bob Dylan, and his impact on 20th century American popular music and culture. The film does not cover Dylan's entire career; it concentrates on the period between Dylan's arrival in New York in January 1961 and his "retirement" from touring, following his motorcycle accident in July 1966. This period encapsulates Dylan's rise to fame as a folk singer and songwriter, and the controversy surrounding his switch to a rock style of music. The film was first shown on television in both the United States (as part of the PBS American Masters series) and the United Kingdom (as part of the BBC Two Arena series) on September 26–27 2005. A DVD version of the film and accompanying soundtrack album (The Bootleg Series Vol. 7: No Direction Home: The Soundtrack) were released that same month. Also in writing this little advertising note I am reinforcing my determination to buy this worthwhile DVD.

Above a picture I took of some signs in Paris. Signposts are, of course, helpful!