Saturday, November 29, 2008

Journeying with Jung 40

A preliminary Note on Mary Mellon and Jung's Anti-Nazism:

Mary Mellon passed away at the early age of 42 in October 1946.  She and her husband had done much negotiation with the publisher Kegan Paul to co-publish Jung's complete works in English on both sides of the Atlantic.  A heart attack hastened by a severe asthma attack killed her.  I mention Mary because chapter 33 finishes with her death and because quite recently a scholar named Dr. William J. Schoenl has written a book called C.G. Jung: His Friendships With Mary Mellon and J. B. Priestley (Chiron Publications, 1998), which is the fruit of extensive research into Carl Jung's unpublished correspondence.  This work illuminates the humanity of Jung and his associates Mary Mellon and J.B. Priestley. Jung's letters to Mary Mellon clearly show that he was anti-Nazi - despite an FBI file on him. Also, the book provides an authentic portrayal of life in Switzerland during World War II.

Chapter 34: Call me C.G.

After his cardiac infarct Jung took good care of himself by reducing his workload, taking two 45 minute walks per day, resting up in the afternoon and going for a swim in the lake at seven o'clock in the morning.  Outside this regimen he continues with writing and research and some consultations.  He persisted with his now obsessive interest in alchemy.  He did not complete his work on the Mysterium Coniunctionis until 1954, and it is not surprising that, written over a period of fourteen years and running to a length of some six hundred pages that it sometimes loses momentum and becomes rather dry and stodgy intellectual sustenance.  In this work he quoted the late Viennese psychologist and analyst Dr Herbert Silberer (1882 –1923) that the coniunctio or union of opposites was the 'central idea' of the alchemists.  Silberer had expressed his views in his early book called Probleme der Mystik und ihrer Symbolik (Problems of Mysticism and its Symbolism), written in 1914 when he was only 32.  Freud rejected his ideas out of hand. Poor Silberer became despondent and later committed suicide by hanging himself after being excommunicated from Freud's circle of associates.

For Jung the coniunctio was 'nothing less than a restoration of the original state of the cosmos and the divine unconsciousness of the world.'  It was equivalent to the union of yin and yang in Tao. (See Hayman, 389)

On the other hand materialism, empiricism and science had combined to produce a kind of 'causalism' that made us want to gain knowledge by 'breaking down everything into individual processes.'  In short we can say that such a method is reductionist.  For Jung, this method while more often than not very valid insofar as it provided us with good guidelines in medicine and science, nevertheless, it distracted us from the unus mundus or the overarching mystical union of the entire universe in one essential principle.  (Some, like Jung, would call this principle God - TQ).  Such an overarching mystical union validated what Jung called the synchronistic principle. Interestingly he defined the unus mundus as 'the original non-differentiated unity of the world or of Being... the primordial unconscious.  Is this primordial unconscious God?  Yes is the answer for Jung, I believe.  (See ibid., 389)

An Interesting Analogy:

There is nothing as good as an analogy to explain things, though I admit that sometimes it can strain the mystery out of the thing by being a little too rigid.  However, let's listen to Jung on an interesting analogy for the collective unconscious:

The collective unconscious is 'like the air, which is the same everywhere, is breathed by everyone and yet belongs to no one.'  It was from this that 'everything psychic takes shape before it is personalised, modified, assimilated etc. by external influences.'  (Ibid., 390)

Jung on the Shadow:

This is another tenet of Jungian psychology.  He had used the term shadow as far back as 1937 in his lectures as Yale University.  He argued that people are morally worse than they imagine.  "Everyone carries a shadow, and the less it is embodied in the individual's conscious life, the blacker and denser it is... If it is repressed and isolated from consciousness, it never gets corrected, and is liable to burst forth suddenly in a moment of unawareness." (Quoted ibid., 391).  In a broadcast on BBC radio in November 1946 he stated that Hitler"represented the shadow, the inferior part of everybody's personality, in an overwhelming degree" and he was "the most prodigious personification of all human inferiorities..."  (Quoted ibid., 392)

Another Heart Attack and Letters to and from Fr. White:

Later in 1946 Jung had yet another heart attack and was now very comfortable with the idea of his impending death, which he felt could happen at any moment.  In their letters they each invited the other to call him by his Christian name.  Hence the title of this chapter: "Call me C.G."  In these letters he revealed that Jesus was the archetype of the God-man and that the phenomenon of synchronicity adhered to that archetype.  (See ibid., 395)  Jung also revealed to White that he placed Buddhism and all major world religions on a par with Christianity.  White could not concur with this contention.

Jung's own method of therapy:

If Jung had once adored his father and later had a 'religious crush' on Freud, the archetypal transference must have been at work in both surges of emotion.  For himself, as for other people, Jung tended to depersonalise personal history, shifting the focus away from individual characteristics and specific circumstances.  It was likewise for Toni Wolff, one of his earliest disciples and collaborators:

Convinced as Jung was, that the collective unconscious is partly responsible for what we do, she was good at making patients feel less guilty about failure and less vain about success.  (Ibid., 401)

Many patients regarded Toni as the best analyst they ever had and even better than Jung himself. 

The C.G. Jung Institute:

On the 24th of April 1948 (Jung was now 73) the C.G. Jung institute opened due to popular demand.  Now that the pioneer himself was ageing this demand had grown.  Jung is reported to have found it strange that "C.G. Jung" would now designate not merely his private person but something objective as well.  Asked why he no longer had any opposition to the idea of an institute he replied: "They would start one between my death and my funeral in any case, so I think it is better to do so while I can still have some influence on its form."  (Quoted ibid., 396)

Friday, November 28, 2008

Journeying with Jung 39

Chapter 33: What Happens After Death: 

This chapter covers the period 1944 till 1945.  During this time Jung had broken his leg - his fibula to be exact, the smaller of the two bones in the lower leg (also called the calf bone located on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below.)  Ten days later he suffered a heart attack.  On the 7th May 1945 Germany surrendered to the Allies.  Later that year he established a close relationship with the Dominican Priest,  Fr. Victor White.  On the 6th and 9th of August of the same year the two Atomic Bombs were dropped on Japan.  Some days later Jung gave the Eranos lecture on "The Psychology of the Spirit."

Illness as an Awakening:

It almost goes without saying that we especially appreciate life after we have had an illness - especially a serious one.  At 68 years of age Jung suffered a double blow in breaking his leg and in getting a severe heart attack.  Afterwards he would speak about this illness as being a veritable awakening for him.  I have met many others who have recounted similar experiences.  I can testify to like effects on me of an illness which struck me and necessitated some seven weeks in hospital.  It was as if I had begun to value life anew and experience it at a different level or depth.  With respect to Jung we read:

Retrospectively he would call the illness 'a most valuable experience.'  It had given him 'a glimpse behind the veil.  The only difficulty is to get rid of the body, to get quite naked and void of the world and the ego-will.  When you can give up the crazy will to live and when you seemingly fall into a bottomless mist, then the truly real life begins with everything which you were meant to be and never reached.'  (Quoted Hayman, 378)

Jung went on to say that 'Life and the whole world struck me as a prison.' (Ibid., 378)  During and after this significant illness he began to have very deep meaningful dreams.  He had for years been besotted and obsessed with the unity of opposites and he began now to declare that he would never have fully understood this paradox of the conjunction of opposites without having experienced the double blow of broken leg and heart attack.  He was brought psychically lower and deeper than he had ever been previously.  His dreams now gave him a new insight into this mystery of opposites with which he had been struggling for years and which had led him to study alchemy in depth.  Hayman continues:

Discharged from hospital in July, he was reluctant to part with his blissful dreams and visions, but felt that he knew more than he had before about the afterlife, and that consciousness survived.  'What happens after death,' he wrote in a letter, ' is so indescribably glorious that our imagination and our feelings are inadequate to form even an approximate notion of it... Sooner or later all the dead become what we also are... The dissolution of our time-bound form in eternity brings no loss of meaning.' (Ibid., 380)

Jung on the External World:

I have already alluded to the fact in my previous post that the external world counted for little or nothing with Jung.  What really mattered was the inner one which was becoming far more "real" for him as he aged.  Hence, the War, with all its destruction and death played itself out somewhere far beyond his important inner reality.  Let's take some examples:

(1) The Plot to Kill Hitler:

C.G. believed profoundly in his prophetic intimacy with the archetypal forces which he believed shaped the world.  In like manner these same archetypal forces governed the War.  His followers, in keeping with Jung's concerns, were very happy to see a synchronistic connection between his recovery and that of the increasing success of the Allies against Hitler.

Hence he was interested in the War insofar as he could see it as a playing out of these archetypal forces.  The plot to kill Hitler interested him for the same reasons.  This plot took place on 20 July 1944.  One of the conspirators was General Erwin Rommel, but the crucial role was played by a Colonel, Claus Count von Stauffenberg, Chief of Staff to the commander of the army reserve.   After the conspirators had been executed Jung showed absolutely no sympathy for them because in his opinion they also just wanted absolute power. I agree with Hayman that here Jung had got his facts wrong and both these men had quite strong, if subtle, ethical stances.  He saw the conspirators as mere channels for the playing out of the archetypal forces from the collective unconscious.  Once again Hayman's insights are interesting:

To be that archetypal forces determine events is to devalue both individual initiatives and historical developments.  In his 1936 essay on Wotan, Jung had maintained that the unfathomable depths of the God's character explained more about National Socialism than economic, political and psychological factors.  (Hayman, 381)

(2)  On Nazism as the War came to an end:

In an interview with a Swiss journalist as the Second World War ground to a halt, he stated that collective guilt was a fact that we could not deny.  Indeed, he stated further that the very task of therapy was to make the Germans as a people admit their collective guilt.  This was a strong statement from the old man. (I use the term 'old' purposely because that is the adjective he used to describe himself.)  The 'general psychic inferiority of the Germans' had produced a 'national inferiority complex [a term coined by his fellow psychiatrist and analyst Alfred Adler] which they try to compensate by megalomania.'  It was no accident, he said, that Goebbels had been 'branded with the ancient mark of the demonised man - a clubfoot.  Ten per cent of the German population today are hopeless psychopaths.'  (Ibid., 382-383)

(3)  The Failure of Civilisation:

Jung spread the blame not alone for the War but for every other malaise in society on the failure of civilisation, which failure could be seen in the bankruptcy of modernity itself.  Modern art showed nothing but the sheer desperation and alienation of humankind and he mentioned 'the blatantly pathological element in modern painting.'  Atonal music obviously captured this desperation, alienation and pathology in the jarring of sound.  And, then, in the book Ulysses by our own James Joyce he could see the very seeds of the Second World War: 'Here we have the germ of what became a political reality in Germany.'  (see ibid., 383)  Jung could not resist a reference to the more primitive (and purer in a way) world of his 'pueblo chieftain.'  The white man, unlike his primitive counterpart, was restless, nervous, pressured and unstable.  In this restlessness, nervousness and instability he had dragged down the gods and transformed them into demons through his so-called rational scientific enlightenment.  However, he had neither killed nor got rid of them because all of these old gods reappeared as psychic factors in the minds of the Nazi war criminals.  The German people and especially its Nazi leaders had become possessed by these evil spirits as it were, those old denied gods.

Our Spiritual Needs necessitate a Church:

As Jung looked out on the world from his Shangri-La existence in the snowy mountains of Switzerland which had been left almost completely untouched by the Second World War, he saw what he termed 'the diabolical drive towards destruction.'  He had seen this most obviously in the pathological megalomania of Wotan-Hitler which almost destroyed Europe and European civilisation and most essentially in the Atom Bombs dropped on Japan on the 6th and 9th days of August 1944.  In effect, after the Manhattan Project, nothing could ever be the same.  Unless a new ethics, a new religion and a new spirituality were pressed into action the world would hurtle to its own destruction.  Let's listen to Jung's own words here:

As I see it, only a worldwide religious movement could fend off the diabolical drive towards destruction.  That is why the question of the Church grips me so urgently, for the Church is the only worldly authority where spirit in the religious sense moves the brute masses.  The Church would have its raison d'etre if it could save humanity or at least civilisation.  ((Quoted ibid., 384)

C.J. had always seen himself as a guru and as a prophet, and, therefore, his only chance of fulfilling his mission was to form an alliance with the Church.  However, being ever the pioneer of his own ideas, this would have to be on his terms only.  There would be no compromise with anything like dogma as we have already seen in our last post where he suggested that the devil should make up a quaternity, that is the usual three persons plus this satanic fourth. No Christian Church could possibly swallow that.  Hayman points out in all this, that Jung, being a unique and very unorthodox Protestant Christian, saw himself implicitly as a latter-day Luther pointing out the corruption of the old Church and the way to a new inspired one.   This new inspired Church was the only hope to save all of civilisation.

He would need a collaborator inside the church, and if he prayed for one, it must have looked as though God was responding when, shortly after his 70th birthday, a package arrived from an English Dominican who had been put in touch by a Jungian analyst, Gerhard Adler.  This man was one Fr. Victor White, O.P. and it is to their relationship we will turn in our next post.

Above I have pasted a copy of the painting "The Destruction Sodom and Gomorrah" by John Martin. I think it symbolically captures the essence of this post, that is, the essence of Jung's deep feelings in the aftermath of World War II and the dropping of the two Atomic Bombs on Japan.

Wednesday, November 26, 2008

Journeying with Jung 38

Chapter 32: Trinity + Devil = Quaternity:

Once again here we have an interesting chapter title.  It points up Carl Gustave Jung's continuing obsession with mythology and symbolism as found and reflected in the collective unconscious.  He had long declared that mythology in general reflects the contents of the collective unconscious and vice versa.  This chapter covers the period from  8 March 1940 until November 1943 - some three and a half years.  However I wish to start at the end of that period with a little incident that shows the true character of the venerable man in question.

The Outraged Old Man - with a hurt Ego:

When our integrity and/or intelligence are called into question we are singularly affronted.  It was a great affront to Jung to have been criticised by a Swiss philosophy student who had reviewed his new book, Problems of the Unconscious in Der Zurcher Student.  This young man's name was Arnold Künzli (1919, Zürich - 2008) and he was a political writer, philosopher and radical democrat. It was February 1943 and Arnold was only 24 and he had the audacity to accuse Jung of being a romantic who often gave vent to his ideas at the expense  of 'scientific empiricism.'  (see Hayman, 377)  Jung's ego was hurt and he shared this outrage with Freud.  They had both looked upon themselves as scientists who sought to base their ideas on empirical data.  Quite obviously the Social and Psychological Sciences overlap somewhat with the Natural Sciences, but they also share much with the World of the Arts where a lot of the human experiences described are often undefinable and intractable in a more clinical and scientific laboratory setting.   This very much goes without saying today.  However, neither Freud nor Jung would have any of this type of nuanced thinking as regards science.  As far as they were concerned, they were scientists on a par with chemists or physicists and that was that. Hayman points out that in his letters to the young philosopher, the venerable psychiatrist had defended himself with more vigour than dignity.  Indeed the old man mentioned that he had received seven honorary doctorates and had asked his accuser to state where he had been unscientific.  Let's listen to the old man's diatribe which has some little wisdom behind his outrage:

...answering a second letter in which Künzli posed psychological questions, Jung denounced 'that moaner Kierkegaard,' together with Heidegger, James Joyce, Hegel and Nietzsche, who 'drips with outraged sexuality.'  Philosophy had still to learn it was 'made by human beings and depends to an alarming extent on their psychic constitution... There is no thinking qua thinking, at times it is a pisspot of unconscious devils... Neurosis addles the brain of every philosopher because he is at odds with himself.'  But this lesson had already been learned.  Nietzsche says every philosophy is an autobiographical statement.  (Hayman, 378)

During the years covered in this chapter, 1940-1943, Jung had given his last lecture on Loyola at the Polytechnic in Zurich; had holidayed in Ascona with rich American friends and disciples, the Mellons; had resigned as president of The International General Medical Society; had given the Eranos lecture on the Trinity; had begun lectures at the Polytechnic on a topic dear to his heart, viz., alchemy; had also delivered lectures on the symbolism of the Mass and after retiring from lecturing at the Polytechnic had accepted a chair in Medical Psychology at Basel University. 

The Inner World versus the Outer World: 

I have already referred to the fact that Jung had said that the 'internal struggle' within each of us is infinitely more important that any 'external struggle'.  Growing old he embraced with stoicism and with a certain conservation of energy: 'The secret of growing old properly, it seems to me, is to consume oneself prudently and avoid being consumed.'  The Second World War was making him ever more religious - religious in a Buddhist sense that denied the reality of the world - it is almost immaterial for him now.  Jung became ever more inclined to give the psyche priority over external events.  To Peter Baynes (Dr H.G. Peter Baynes, 1882-1943, one of the leading Jungian analysts in the United Kingdom) he said: 'Don't think please, that Iam callous in not mentioning the horrors of our time.  I am confirmed in my fundamental disbelief in this world.'  (Quoted, ibid., 371)

Jung disliked also with a growing antipathy the modern world and all it stood for.  He is what he was to say at 65 (that is, in 1940): 'It is difficult to be old in these days.  One is helpless.  On the one hand one feels estranged from this world.  I like nature but not the world of man or the world to be... I loathe the new style, the new Art, the new Music, Literature, Politics, and above all the new Man.'  (Quoted ibid., 370-371)

The Overarching Importance of Symbols:

For an ageing man besotted and obsessed  with the unseen world and the veritable unreality of this one, we can well extend our credulity to the fact that the world of the imagination, that world replete and redolent with symbols, would and should take on a reality all of its own.  As far back as 1937 Jung had often made the point that 'whereas the central Christian symbol is a Trinity, the formula presented by the unconscious is a quaternity.  In reality the orthodox Christian formula is not complete.' (quoted ibid., 368)  Indeed he went on to point out that the concept of doctrine or dogma, call it what you will, was unsatisfactory because it contained  no representation  of either the feminine or indeed of the reality of evil.  He kept re-iterating that there are 'always four elements, four prime qualities, four colours, four castes, four ways of spiritual development.' (ibid., 368)

Medieval Versus Modern Mind:

Jung is intriguing, I believe, on this contrast here with respect to the development of the Dogma of the Trinity.  The Medieval Mind had assumed that the human psyche had the same structure as The Trinity, but the Modern Mind for Jung reverses this procedure and derives the structure of the Trinity from the psyche.  This is very interesting.  I have come to believe, in the latter years of my life, that religion or more correctly any religious or spiritual beliefs are constructs of our psychology - humankind needs to invent and put these structures in place to support itself on its journey through life.  Carl Gustave Jung felt that if evil were excluded from the idea of God and from the Trinity that its essential reality was being denied.  Evil was and is more than a mere absence of the good - a mere shadow with relative rather than stark existence. Jung quoted the early Gnostic view that Christ was God's second son and that the first was Satanael - the name means Satan-God.  he went on to point out that the central Christian symbol of the Cross was unmistakably a quaternity.  Hence we have the interesting and provocative title of this present chapter.  There is much food for thought in Jung indeed.

Above I have placed an image of a traditional quaternity for illustrative purposes.

Tuesday, November 25, 2008

Journeying with Jung 37

Dealings with Jolande Jacobi

Among the coterie of followers who became famous analysts was Jolande Jacobi(1890-1973).  She would become a colleague of Jung for many years.   Jewish by birth, she had become a Catholic.  However, she had converted long before the Nazi threat.  Of course, this would not protect her from the "Final Solution" thought up by Wotan-Hitler.  Therefore, in March 1938, when the Germans marched into Austria, Jolande Jacobi was in grave danger.  In 1934, at the age of 44, she had written to Jung wanting him to train her as an analyst.  She had enrolled as a student of psychology at the University of Vienna and was only within four months of graduating when Austria was annexed.

Her flat was ransacked by the Gestapo soon after the occupation, but Jolande managed to escape to Budapest from where she again wrote to Jung, looking for asylum in the Shangri-La of Switzerland, the land of Jungian dreams, if I may be permitted to sustain my mythical metaphor. However, Jung refused to relent.  I find this position very hard-hearted and lacking in empathy as Jung must have realised her absolute and imminent danger.  Risking her life, Jolande returned to Vienna where she stayed in a friend's house pretending to be a widow.i.e., dressing all in black with a veil covering her head.  She graduated with her Doctorate in Psychology and went to Zurich where Jung finally admitted her to his inner circle. 

A little later, in Autumn 1941, Jung was to write to the president of the festival in Einsiedeln where Jolande had been asked to address the congress on the subject of "Paracelsus and Women" warning him of Jolande's being a close friend of Kurt von Schuschnigg, the Austrian Chancellor who had tried to stop Hitler from invading his country.  One might understand this protest if Switzerland was in imminent danger of invasion.  By Autumn of 1941, this danger had almost completely receded. (See Hayman, 376)  One might write this behaviour down to envy of a very capable woman and to Jung's machismo or ego. Hayman goes on to report the following which is an insight into Jung's dark side:

Forced to withdraw, she afterwards said: "I always regarded Jung as a Pétainist... He always wanted not to get into difficulties with people."... According to Jacobi, Jung had once said:  "You know the great difference between you and me is that I am a coward and you are unusually brave for a woman." (Ibid., 376)

One can see Jung's cowardice alright and we can accept him at his word, because at least he did admit his faults and acknowledge his shadow side.  However, we can note the then attitude to women in his final allusion to women in the above quoted paragraph.

Also Jung's treatment of the young Jewish lawyer Vladimir Rosenbaum leaves a lot to be desired.  This young man had helped Jung when he was being accused of Anti-SemitismJung failed to do anything to help him. (See ibid., 359)  The reader, including this one, is very disappointed in this hero with definite feet of clay.

Jung's Ego and Ambition:

Chapter 31 deals with the time period from March 1938 (when the German troops marched into Austria) until 23 of September 1939, the very day of Sigmund Freud's death.  It is also important to pint out that the Second World War was declared on the 3rd day of that same month.  So this was an emotional and turbulent period to say the least.  During this short interval Jung founded The Teaching Institute for Psychotherapy at Zurich University, chaired the congress of The International General Medical Society at Oxford, gave the last seminar on Nietzsche, stayed on as president of The International General Medical Society, appointed Dr Goring as co-editor of its journal the Zentralblatt, and wrote a very famous obituary for Freud which damned the great man with faint praise indeed.

According to Hayman,  Jung was all the while trying to establish himself as 'the dominant psychological theorist of the day.' (see ibid., 359-360)

Jung on Hitler:

Once again Jung is always interesting on this megalomaniac.  Hayman continues with his depiction of these ideas:

Unlike Mussolini, Hitler scarcely existed as a man.  While Mussolini's role disappeared behind him, Hitler disappeared behind his role.  Watching a parade of goose-stepping Germans soldiers, Mussolini enjoyed it 'with the zest of a small boy at a circus... It really is a most impressive step.'  But Hitler made 'upon me the impression of a sort of scaffolding of wood covered with cloth, an automaton with a mask, like a robot... During the whole performance he never laughed; it was as though he were in a bad humour, sulking.'  (ibid., 360)

Jung went on to say that Hitler's madness went on to affect the whole German people.  The megalomaniacal dictator was subject to ungovernable rages as many of his henchmen would suffer in like manner and so on down the line.  After the pact between Germany and Russia, Jung dreamed that Hitler was the 'Devil's Christ', in other words the Antichrist, but that, as such, he was 'God's instrument.'  In a letter he wrote in English on 2 September 1939, Jung said: 'Hitler is approaching his climax and with him the German Psychosis.'  (Ibid., 363)  The Second World War was to be declared the following day.

Above I have uploaded a Nazi propaganda poster. Sinister times when Wotan-Hitler captured the public imagination! What a nightmare to openly participate in!

Monday, November 24, 2008

Journeying with Jung 36

Chapter 31: The German Psychosis:

I have already referred to the fact that Switzerland remained neutral during WW II and that this idyllic mountainous state provided a sort of Shangri-La existence for its population and especially for Jung.  He took little or no interest in politics, being quite happy in exploring the psychic inner worlds of his patients and most especially his own unconscious world - both individual and collective.  Indeed, I have also referred to the fact that as he got older he was far less inclined to be interested in the personal lives of his patients, being all the while far more interested in their collective unconscious.  We Irish should understand that sense of neutrality - we ourselves having being neutral during WW II also.  Indeed, we were so because we were far too young as a nation and far too hostile to Great Britain whose forces of occupation had only left our shores within living memory.  So the neutral position was understandable, even if somewhat lacking in sympathy for the woes of the other countries of Europe.  However, back to neutral Switzerland and to Carl Gustave Jung, who while not an open Nazi, or even a Nazi-sympathiser, had some opinions, widely documented, that were openly anti-Semitic and somewhat pro-Nazi.  He seemed, to my mind, to do a sort of "tight-rope walk" as regards his moral attitude to Nazism and Hitlerism. 

Internal Battles are the only Important Battles:

Most psychotherapists would agree with this.  I have personally always believed that say the likes of Ian Paisley and Radavan Karadzic would make great candidates for any form of therapy because they projected outwards so much hate onto others.  Where did all that anger come from?  Why did they foment so much violence?  Anyway, I will return to the insightful words of Ronald Hayman here:

At the beginning of the First World War, he had decided that his main duty was to explore the depths of his own psyche, and throughout the second he went on believing that the battles that mattered the most were internal.  'One could say that the whole world, with its turmoil and misery, is in an individuation process.'  If only people understood this, they would not be at war, 'because whosoever has the war inside himself has no time and pleasure to fight others.'  (Hayman, op.cit., 365)

This above passage with direct quotations from Jung are singularly important to my mind.  They show us Jung's complete pre-occupation with his internal world, with his inner struggles.  This, of course, is not to say that he was self-obsessed, solipsistic or even narcissistic.  No, rather he was on a much deeper internal psychic journey in pursuit of Self or individuation or self-realisation or self-actualisation - call it what you will.  Call it the pursuit of meaning as the Jewish psychiatrist Viktor Frankl puts it in his logotherapy.  In other words, Jung was very far from being an egotist which would have meant he could have been self-obsessed, solipsistic or narcissistic.

Jung and the Hero Myth:

His dream world was the richest source of inspiration for Carl Gustave Jung.  Not a night went by without his unconscious yielding up some wonderful fruit by way of imagery to this widely-read dilettante, to this explorer of the psyche.  Of all of his experiences in India, the most significant, he said, was the fact that he had had a wonderful dream in his hotel in Calcutta.  The dream had him swimming like a mighty warrior in pursuit of the Holy Grail.  He used the following description when interpreting this dream: "Seek rather for your fellow men the healing vessel, the servator mundi, you urgently need.  You are in danger of ruining everything the centuries have built.' (Quoted ibid., 357) Hayman comments that Jung always tended to push his life  towards the dimension of myth. (see ibid., 357).  To end this post I will quote the following passage in full because it sums up what I wish to say on mythology and Christianity:

Lecturing at Yale, he had said: 'Life has gone out of the churches and it will never go back.'  He now changed his mind: the trend was reversible, and he was the man who would reverse it.  If Nazism was a symptom of spiritual sickness, his duty was to save civilisation from Wotan-oriented paganism.  Since this could not be done by imposing eastern religion on Western culture, the best chance was to cure Christianity of the disease that had driven his father to despair and premature death.  People no longer responded to the images of wholeness in the rituals, dogmas and traditions preserved by the church.  Unlike him, its spiritual leaders had no experience of direct contact with God... (Op.cit., 358)

This is a particularly pertinent and insightful passage, but at times, I feel that Hayman is a little too imprecise with the terms he uses.  For instance, when talking about religion and Christianity he uses both these terms interchangeably with another term, namely 'church.'  This leads not so much to confusion, but rather to a fuzziness of thinking and a muddying of waters not altogether already too clear.

Above an example of Nazi War Propaganda.