Saturday, December 06, 2008

Journeying with Jung 45

Mythification and Auntification: Chapter 37

The Inner versus the Outer Worlds:

Jung would return to this conflict many times in his life.  As I have stated some few times already, the learned psychiatrist would prize the life of his inner world of far more value and importance than that of his world of outer activity.  Towards the end of 1957, he was invited by Gustav Steiner, to write a short memoir for a Basel periodical, the Basler Stadtbuch.  Sending a negative reply to this open invitation, Jung formulated an interesting principle.  He stated clearly that "All memory of outer events has faded, and perhaps the 'outer' events were not the real ones, or were real only insofar as they coincided with inner phases of development... Conversely, my recollection of 'inner' experiences has become livelier and more colourful.' (See Hayman, 434)

The Mythology of One's Own Life:

In line with the sentiments expressed in the previous paragraph one can say that the goal of any person in life is that of individuation or of realising the true or real Self, that is the authentic or integrated centre of one's life, the true Self.  To reach this authenticity and truth of the inner or real Self one must tell one's own unique story.  In short one must weave one's very own Mythology.  In Jung's own words: "In the eighty-third year of my life I have undertaken to tell the myth of my life.  I can however only make direct statements, only "tell stories."  Whether they are true is not the problem.  The only question is whether it is my fable, my truth."  (Quoted ibid., 434)

The Auntification of Jung's Life:

This was a term coined wittily by Jung in the last few years of his life.  He had been dictating some of his memories to his last secretary Aniela Jaffé.  Jung actually wrote some of the text himself, but two thirds of it was her work. Here I wish to return to Hayman who informs us:

As secretary of the Jung Institute, Aniela Jaffé had earned only a small salary, and one of his motives in letting her write Memories, Dreams, Reflections was to provide a pension for her without putting money aside for it - she would receive royalties from the book.  It was like a reversal of the bargain they had made when he accepted labour instead of cash for her analysis.  (Ibid., 435)

Jung referred also to this project as "the Jaffé enterprise." (Ibid., 435)  The following account is how the coining of the term "auntification" came about.  Early in 1960 Jung, in an interview with Richard Hull, first used this witty expression, this neologism which he had invented himself on the spur of the moment namely Tantifizierung which translates as "auntification."  This, in other words, is Jung's attempt to describe the transformation of his words into text by Jaffé. The joke is that the narrative is now in the voice of a maiden aunt as it were.  Much is sanitised and somewhat censored - "auntified" as it were.   Indeed, the "homosexual undertow" (as Hayman describes it) in the relationship between Freud and Jung is omitted completely from the final text.

Hence the immediate two paragraphs above describe exactly the title of our chapter.  As I've said many times before Hayman is a master at the appropriate chapter title.  As Hayman goes on to point out about Aniela Jaffé semi-biography of Jung:

If she and other auntifiers made him out to have been more heroic than he actually was, they were only doing what he often did himself.  If he wanted his story to seem like a myth, it was partly because he wanted to appear like a hero, and never as a victim.  The book must not merely show him fighting courageously against the psychosis that was unbalancing him in 1913-1917.  He must seem to be entering an underworld voluntarily, like Orpheus or Ulysses: choosing 'Confrontation with the Unconscious', as the title for the sixth chapter implies this.  Jung also liked to point out that he was taking enormous risks for the sake of humanity, which would benefit if he came back with new information about the uncharted depths of the unconscious.  (Ibid., 441)

Hayman went on to point out rather perspicaciously and wittily - but not sarcastically, I feel - that if Jung had been the sole author, the narrative could have been described as an autohagiography.  This last word is a neologism coined this time by Hayman.  I cannot help feeling that Jung would have laughed so loudly at this.


Chapter 38:  When You Come to the Other Side:

This is the final chapter as the title so clearly indicates.  It brings me to my last blog entry on Hayman's biography of Carl Gustave Jung.  This chapter covers the period October 1959 until Jung's death in his bed at home in Kusnacht on the 6th of June 1961.    In October 1959 Jung had been interviewed by John freeman on BBC television.  In May 1960 his old friend Fr Victor White, O.P. died.  Fortunately, they were both to exchange friendly and open letters before this sad event.  In September 1960 CGJ was taken ill while on a motoring trip with Fowler McCormick and Ruth Bailey.  For the spring of 1961 he stayed in his retreat at Bollingen and on the sixth of June that year he died.

Hayman describes his final year of life thus:

With his [Victor White's] death, Toni's and Emma's, Jung had lost the three people who had been closest to him.  he had always been a solitary man, and from now on, he would be a lonely one.  It was harder to make the effort involved in writing, dictating and talking to patients or visitors when there was no possibility of intimacy and no desire for it.  (Ibid., 446)

His daughter Ruth nursed him during his final months of life.  Once she asked him, when he had told her he had not too long left, "Whatever shall I do when you go and leave me?"  To this he made reply: "Well, I'll do my very best to welcome you when you come to the other side." (Quoted ibid., 449)

As far as I can make out the above is a mandala drawn by Jung.

Friday, December 05, 2008

Journeying with Jung 44

Chapter 36:  She was a Queen:

This current chapter covers the period from August 1951 until the 27th November 1955 when Emma Jung died.  It is to her that the title of this chapter refers.  During this time period  he gave the Eranos lecture entitled "On Synchronicity."  He also replied to Martin Buber's sharp criticism of his work and thought and Victor White had come to stay for a short period at Bollingen, though their relationship was by this time somewhat strained.  Toni Wolff was to die on the 19th of March 1953 and in June of that year the first volume of his Collected Works was published.  Victor White was sent to California by his superiors in the autumn of 1954 to cool his ardour and to have him silenced as it were - there he would be far less likely to promulgate his unorthodox views about psychology and religion.  In May 1955 CGJ broke off his correspondence with the Dominican priest.  That year also Aniela Jaffé took over as Jung's secretary.

Falling out with Fr. Victor White O.P. - The End of a Relationship

In the end these two friends fell out over the essential nature of evil.  The classical Christian doctrine of Evil's being a deprivation or absence or corruption of the Good was a tenet Fr. White could not drop at any cost - even if that price meant the end of their relationship.  This doctrine went back to St Thomas Aquinas who had taken it lock, stock and barrel from St Augustine of Hippo way back further in the fifth century A.D.  The classical statement ran tersely in Latin thus: "Malum est privatio boni" which translates "Evil is the privation of the Good."  In a letter to White at this disputatious period Jung had said: "because it belittles and derealises Evil," the doctrine of privatio "weakens the Good, because it deprives it of a necessary opposite."  (Quoted Hayman, 420)  In one of his last letters to the founder of Analytical Psychology White wrote:

For myself, it seems that our ways must, at least to some extent, part.  I shall never forget, and please God I shall never lose, what I owe to your work and friendship.  (Quoted ibid., 427)

Though he afterwards wrote to Jung occasionally, he received no reply for over four years.

Debate with Martin Buber:

I remember many years ago reading Buber's little classic I and Thou (Ich und Du) for philosophy class in Mater Dei Institute of Education.  As I recall it the gist of this famous book went thus: Buber's basic premise was that we experience life as Encounter.  For him there were basically two categories of encounter in every individual's life, viz., (1) An I-You (Ich-Du) encounter and (2) an I-It (Ich-Es) encounter.   In short both of these pairs which describe these forms of encounter categorize the modes of consciousness, interaction, and being through which an individual engages with other individuals, inanimate objects, and all reality in general. Philosophically, these word pairs express complex ideas about modes of being - particularly how a person exists and actualises that existence (existentialism). As Buber argues in I and Thou, a person is at all times engaged with the world in one of these modes.

When we engage in an I-You relationship or encounter we are fundamentally engaged in a powerful and life-affirming dialogue.  On the other hand when we engage in an I-It relationship we are essentially involved in a monologue.  Other words I might use with reference to our first category of encounter here would be: mutual, two-way, interactive, meeting, exchange, realistic experience, dialogue, encounter, engagement, concrete existence, the now-ness of the encounter, authenticity of being, being grounded in one's own existence.  Now Buber would add that the twin realities of infinity and universality are made actual in these real encounters.  In other words they become more than mere concepts - they are experienced as real or actual.  However, the I-Thou relationship or encounter cannot be measured empirically, Buber stressed that it was indeed real and perceivable.  Now Buber was not alone a philosopher but a dyed-in-the-wool Hasidic Jew.  For him every Ich-Du relationship shared to some extent in the most important Ich-Du relationship of the lot that between the individual and his creator God.   One key Ich-Du relationship Buber identified was that which can exist between a human being and God. Buber argued that this is the only way in which it is possible to interact with God, and that an Ich-Du relationship with anything or anyone connects in some way with the eternal relation to God.

To create this I-Thou relationship with God, a person has to be open to the idea of such a relationship, but not actively pursue it. The pursuit of such a relation creates qualities associated with it, and so would prevent an I-You relation, limiting it to I-It. Buber says by being open to the I-Thou, God will eventually come to you. Also, because the God Buber describes is completely devoid of qualities, this I-You relation lasts as long as the individual chooses. When the individual finally chooses to return to the I-It world, they act as a pillar of deeper relation and community. 

Buber's philosophy is Jewish existentialist if I may be so bold as to categorise this great man's ideas.  I have always found his writing very rich indeed and very deep too.  It is no wonder that he should have found difficulties with Jung's writings and Jung's beliefs which to a greater or lesser extent psychologised the notion of God as Other, God as transcendent Being by bringing it far too much down to earth for him, in other words humanising God too much, reducing him to a factor or reality within the human Collective Unconscious.  In theological terms this sort of approach to God would be called immanentist.   It's at this point that I wish to return to Hayman and quote him somewhat more fully than usual:

In February 1952 an attack on Jung appeared in the German monthly Merkur.  Writing on 'Religion and Modern thinking,' the septuagenarian Jewish philosopher Martin Buber called him 'the leading psychologist of our day,' but blamed him for helping to precipitate 'the eclipse of God.'  As he had explained in his 1923 book I and Thou, Buber believed in God as 'the eternal Thou,' and held that we achieve authenticity only by confronting him directly.  If Gnosis was knowledge, what mattered to Buber was devotio: bringing faith alive through mutual confrontation with God.

Jung had 'overstepped the boundaries of psychology' by defining religion as 'a living relationship with psychical events independent of and beyond consciousness in the darkness of the psychical hinterland.'  This would mean that religion cannot be regarded as a relationship with a primordial being and presence that remains transcendent.  If God is an 'autonomous psychic content,' he has no reality outside the human psyche.  Jung contends that 'metaphysical statements are statements of the psyche and are therefore psychological,' but every statement is psychological when considered with regard to its origin, not its meaning.  If the soul experiences only itself, not God, there is no I-Thou confrontation, and Jung is proclaiming a new religion of psychic immanence...

Jung was inclined to let conscience be overruled by belief in the unity of good and evil.  The place of God is usurped by the individuated self.  In effect, Buber argued, Jung was saying 'the important thing for the "man of modern consciousness" is to stand in no further relations of faith to God.'  Instead of letting our conscience discriminate between right and wrong, good and evil, he wants the soul to be integrated in the self that unifies good and evil.

Jung wants the self to include others, but in Buber's terms, this can only be done by making them into an it instead of a Thou.  (See Hayman, 421)

There is much more that could be said on the Buber-Jung debate, but it is beyond the scope of this post.  I shall discuss the psychology of religion later on and the recent books on God by such scholars as Christopher Hitchens, Richard Dawkins, and others.  However, that must wait until I have more time and myself more organised.

The Death of Toni Wolff:

Toni (Antonia Anna) Wolff (1888 - 1953) was  his patient and then a lover who would later became a Jungian psychoanalyst. The extramarital affair between Jung and Toni Wolff was openly enacted through a course of ten years even to the extent of living in Jung's house at Kusnacht. Indeed he began eventually to call her his "second wife", his legal wife being Emma Jung.    During her psychoanalytic career Toni Wolff published very little, but her best-known paper was an essay on four "types" or aspects of the feminine psyche: the Amazon, the Mother, the Hetaira (or Courtesan), and the Medial (or mediumistic) Woman.

Toni was thirteen years younger than Jung, and it had never occurred to him that she might die first, though she had suffered since the war from arthritis, contracted when she had worked as an ambulance driver for the Red Cross.  And, ignoring the advice of doctors, she smoked forty cigarettes a day.  On the 19th of March 1953 she was telling Jung about her summer holiday plans, and on that very night she died.  Emma broke the news to him.  he grieved for three days before he resumed working.

Under a gingko tree that had been given to him by students, he carved a small stone bas-relief in her memory in Chinese letters:  "Toni Wolff, Lotus, Nun, Mysterious."  (See ibid., 424)

Jung on "Wholeness":

There are so many words we can associate with Jung and I have listed most of them at one time or another in these posts, but one of the most famous to my mind at least must be that of "whole" and all its associated words.  Let's listen more fully once again to Hayman's words:

'The religious longing for wholeness' was indestructible.  Though it played 'the least conspicuous part in contemporary consciousness,' it was stronger than the instincts for sex and power.  (At the age of eighty-three, Jung had not stopped arguing with Freud and Adler.)  What the striving for wholeness wanted, said Jung, was 'to free the individual from the compulsion of the other two instincts,' which 'have stood in the way of man's higher development.'  (Hayman, 430)

Yet another note on Schizophrenia:

I am constantly finding small throw-away notes on issues in this wonderfully whole and integrated biography.  Here yet again I find another insight into this dreadful psychosis:

Over lunch, Jung talked about schizophrenia as 'a protection from the shadow, and usually the collective shadow.'  (Ibid., 431)

The Death of his wife Emma:

Jung was extremely erect and dignified for an old man at Emma's funeral.  "She was a Queen," he told his friends after the funeral service and he then started to weep.  Onlookers recalled that he seemed to have become smaller - to have shrivelled up.  He simply looked like any other small weak old man.

On Gardens and the Country versus the City:

Everyone, Jung maintained, should have their own plot of land or garden space so that he or she can allow their instincts to come back to life.  People need roots and space indeed to find them and put them down.  I remember a lecturer I had years ago saying that everyone of us must get the clay under our finger nails from time to time.  Indeed, I know so many people for whom gardening is the ultimate therapy.  Jung also said that big cities were responsible for our uprootedness and alienation, two words which have become so common in public parlance these days that they are now virtually enshrined in the concrete of our towns and cities.  If Myles na gCopaleen spoke about how his gardaí had become so many per cent bicycle from all the cycling they did - I allude here, of course, to The Third Policeman by Brian O' Nolan - modern men and women must have a very high percentage of concrete in their constitution.

Above I have uploaded a picture of the Hasidic Jewish philosopher Martin Buber.

Wednesday, December 03, 2008

Journeying with Jung 43

Chapter 35:  Jesus and Satan are Brothers:

Carl Gustave Jung was nothing if not unorthodox.  I have mentioned already that his father and some eight other close relatives were pastors in the Swiss Reformed Church.  I have also mentioned that as a young man he had little time for the Church per se, for its rituals and dogmas as is evidenced by his attitude to his father especially when the latter was trying to catechise him in preparation for his confirmation.  However, he had loads of time for the spiritual world or the world of parapsychology.  Indeed his doctoral thesis had centred on analysis of séances he had partaken in with his cousins with the approval and sometimes even with the participation of his mother.  Also Jung was especially close to his mother who was very much in tune with the occult.  To a great extent, then, Jung, like all of us, found it hard to leave his past behind.  The religious or spiritual impulses in humanity fascinated him all his life.  If religion as an orthodox, that is as a church-led and dogma-rooted, phenomenon interested him little, its spiritual thrust virtually  captivated his very soul. It would seem to this reader at least that religion as a psycho-social phenomenon was high on his agenda.  For the masses of people who had neither the time nor the money nor even the depth of character to be spiritually awake or aware, for them the church as an orthodox and institutional symbol or outward sign of their inner spiritual desires would perform a much needed role in their lives.

Jesus and Satan are Brothers:

I have already adverted to the utter heterodoxy or sheer heresy of this above statement.  However, it is a statement that reflects Jung's deep views and his appreciation of the depths of the human psyche.  Remember that the ultimate reality for him was the inner psychic life made up of the conscious and the unconscious, both personal and collective.  I have mentioned several times in these posts that as he grew older he grew ever less interested in the personal concerns of his patients and more and more interested in the reality of their collective unconscious and how this was reflected in their dreams.  Somehow or other God could just as well be the Collective Unconscious for our man Jung.   The inner psychic life was nothing if not a very complex reality comprising a sense of the whole, a sense of the integrated, a sense of the complete, and in so being it must, of necessity, incorporate both good and bad, both black and white and all the shades of gray in between.  Then, if we are to take Jesus and Satan as outward personifications of the Good and the Bad, the Black and the White, these two personages in their symbolic nature must necessarily be brothers of the one FatherJung's highly unorthodox religious views are, then, religious equivalents of his understanding of depth psychology.  Obviously, any believer who takes his beliefs literally, will see these views as heresy.  However, psychologically they are clearly understandable consequences or implications coming from Jung's point of view.

Hayman on Jung's understanding of Jesus and Satan as Brothers:

Here, I beg the reader's patience as I quote in length the words of Ronald Hayman with respect to this thorny subject:

Jung took it that evil was something that had come into existence at a specific moment..  Could man be held responsible for it, or had it been created by God?  The answer, he believed, could be found in the Scriptures.  ' "The Evil One" existed before man did as one of the "Sons of God." '  Jung took this to be a historical fact, and to be crucial.  Ignoring all the references to Jesus as God's only son, he insists that he had an elder brother, Satan, who was a trickster.  It may have been his idea to put a serpent into the Garden of Eden.

The are references in the Old Testament to the Messiah, but the name Jesus is of course never mentioned, and Answer to Job does not explain where Jung found this story about the brothers.  But in 1955, three years after his book came out, he wrote a 'Prefatory note' in a periodical, Pastoral Psychology, published in Great Neck, New York.  he he refers briefly to Clement of Rome, who 'taught that God rules the world with a right hand and a left hand, the right being Christ and the left Satan.'  For a fuller explanation we must turn to the foreword Jung had written in March 1951 for R.J. Zwi Werblowsky's book Lucifer and Prometheus (London, 1952).  In Clement, says Jung, 'we meet with the conception of Christ as the right hand and the devil as the left hand of God, not to speak of the Judaeo-Christian view which recognises two sons of God, Satan the older and Christ the younger.'

...The idea never found its way into the main tradition of Judaeo-Christian dogma... The Hebrew word Satan could refer to any human adversary or accuser, as it does in the books of Samuel and Kings.  In Numbers it is used for the divine messenger sent to stop Balaam from cursing Israel...

... Job confronts Yahweh's contradictory nature, and in this way gains the upper hand.  As described in Answer to Job, his enlightenment resembles that of the young Jung, who understood that a God who shits on his own cathedral is not altogether benevolent.

But He is not immoral.  All; this is 'the behaviour of an unconscious being who cannot be judged morally.'  It is naive, says Jung, to assume that the creator of the world knew what he was doing.  He was not a conscious being.  The 'nonsensical doctrine of the privatio boni' would never have been necessary if we had admitted that evil can emerge from 'divine unconsciousness and lack of reflection.'

... God cannot be a paragon of goodness... 'Man is the mirror God holds up to himself, or the sense organ with which he apprehends his being.'...  (Hayman, 411 - 414)

A Note on Synchronicity:

Lecturing on synchronicity at Eranos in August 1951 Jung defined synchronicity as 'a meaningful coincidence of two or more events where something other than the probability of chance is involved.'  A little alter he defined it as 'an acausal connecting principle' designating 'the parallelism of time and meaning between psychic and psychophysical events.'  (Ibid., 415)

A Note on Consciousness:

At the beginning of the 1930s Jung had written: 'There is no reason why one shouldn't suppose that consciousness could not exist detached from the brain.'  In the early 1950s Jung positively affirmed and even proclaimed that it most definitely could.  (See ibid., 418).

Above I have uploaded yet another picture of Jung in old age.

Tuesday, December 02, 2008

Journeying with Jung 42

A Colourful Character:

To say the least, Carl Gustave Jung was a colourful character.  He even heckled at lectures where he felt the lecturer was wrong or was misrepresenting his views.  Like Freud, he liked to exert his authority.  The fault he most criticised in the founder of psychoanalysis he had in abundance himself - a good example of projection.  We also read in chapter 35 of Hayman's biography that Jung loved to cheat at parlour games like cards - it is even reported that he cheated at patience.  Also like Freud, he was a very poor loser. He also could be very rude with people and behave exceedingly ignorantly by ignoring them.  It is also interesting to learn that he was subject to fits of anger.  All of this somehow does not fit with those pictures of the benign bespectacled old man smiling at us from all those usual pictures we see of him in books.  However, such is life and we should not be too surprised.  The uplifting part of this biography is actually the fact that Jung is presented as a well balanced man, warts and all.

The Presence of Death: 

As Jung grew older he felt the presence of death in his life more and more.  However, death and dying did not unhinge him as he looked on it as an essential part of life.  Foe him living and dying were interdependent and closely interwoven.  By the Spring of 1950, he knew that his wife Emma was dying slowly of cancer, that most fearsome and most unpitying of diseases.  At this stage Jung was 75 while Emma was just 65. (See Hayman, 404-5)

The Fourth Dimension and Consciousness:

I'll let Hayman speak once again:

In work for publication Jung had usually avoided such terms as fourth dimension and synchronicity, but in the spring and summer of 1951, these ideas became central to his work.  In May, while he was chiselling an inscription, it occurred to him that 'consciousness is only an organ for perceiving the fourth dimension, i.e., the all-pervasive meaning, and itself produces no real ideas.'  Jung had never felt more inclined to embrace this pre-Newtonian belief in a unitary world permeated by a coherent divine intention.  It is consisting with the assumption that creative writing consists in taking dictation from the collective unconscious.  Perhaps there was 'something like an "absolute knowledge" which is not accessible to consciousness, but probably is to the unconscious, though only under certain conditions. (Ibid., 410)

The Problem of Evil:

Jung's Answer to Job was written quickly, like the Septem Sermones ad Mortuos, but the ideas had been fermenting for a long time.  'This book has always been on my mind,' he told Mircea Eliade, 'but I waited 40 years to write it.  I was terribly shocked when, still a child, I read the Book of Job for the first time.  I discovered that Yahweh is unjust, that he is even an evil-doer.'

He often thought about the Book of Job, and in a letter to a clergyman at the end of 1945 he wrote: 'For every thinking man the question arises: What about God's omnipotence?  Above all, what about his morality?  He dickers with the devil, allows himself to be hoodwinked, and, out of sheer insecurity, torments the wretched Job... What does it mean when he calls on God to defend him against God?  And how does this conception of God square with the New Testament one?'  (Quoted ibid., 410)

Ignoring all the references to Jesus as God's only son,  he insists that he had an elder brother Satan, who was a trickster.  It may have been his idea to put a serpent into the Garden of Eden.  Job confronts Yahweh's contradictory nature, and in this way gains the upper hand.  As described in Answer to Job, his enlightenment resembles that of the young Jung, who understood that a God who shits on his own cathedral is not altogether benevolent. (See ibid., 412)  Hayman continues:

But He is not immoral.  All this is 'the behaviour of an unconscious being who cannot be judged morally.'  It is naive, says Jung, to assume that the creator of the world knew what He was doing.  He was not a conscious being... evil can emerge from 'divine unconsciousness and lack of reflection.'   In Memories, Dreams, reflections Jung will develop the idea that God was unconscious when he created the world.  (See ibid., 412)

What Jung calls 'the answer to Job' is the cry of despair from the cross - "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?"  It is then when his human nature reaches divinity, according to Jung.  He goes on to argue that God cannot be a paragon of goodness or virtue.  God cannot bring himself to totally dislike His beloved Satan.  There is evil in the Godhead.  I am here probably simplifying Jung to some little extent at least, but no matter, I feel it gets to the heart of things here. (Once again, see ibid., 414)  I will return to the question of God and to the question of the psychology of religion later in these posts.  Such speculations must wait for further reading on my part and for not a little meditation on  and contemplation of the same.

Above I have uploaded a picture of CG Jung as the Stone Mason!

Sunday, November 30, 2008

Journeying with Jung 41

Just a little insight into Jung's character:

Sometimes when we attend lectures we are often caught, not alone by the thread of argument but by the throw-away remarks of the lecturer.  This also happens when one is reading.  Hayman's marvellous biography is replete with such asides which are always illuminating.  Therefore, I shall start this post with one small but significant aside.  Hayman mentions the South African soldier, author and broadcaster Laurens van der Post who, when he had encountered Jung, was led to proclaim the following about our "guru."(Interestingly, I have two books by the same man on my shelves and both are replete with references to Jung and his work.):

When he met Jung, he felt he was coming into contact not just with a set of ideas and not just with another man who had visited Africa, but with 'what Jung was in himself... He had a genius for propinquity.' Van der Post felt reassured: he had been right to have faith in the dreaming area.  (Hayman, 398)

I believe that this throw away aside by Hayman is significant.  Firstly, our biographer paints Jung in all his colours, in his very integration of all the good and the bad in himself; he paints him as a real and very whole person who, not alone was open to his shadow side, but had integrated it.  Jung is presented as a fulsome and congruent, true to self human being.  In other words, to state this in Jungian terms, Hayman presents Jung to us as an individuated man. This is what, in my belief, made Jung so attractive to all who encountered him, that is, in van der Post's words, he truly had 'a genius for propinquity,' that is, a genius for kinship with all of humanity whom he was privileged to meet.  Being neither saint nor sinner, he was an integrated whole person which blended the two.

Chapter 35:  Jesus and Satan are Brothers:

Once again we can say that Hayman has surpassed himself with the appropriateness of chapter titles.  This title is nothing if not provocative, and at the same time it sums up Jung's genius for unorthodoxy.  This chapter covers roughly the years 1950-51.  During this time Emma was hospitalised after fracturing her shoulder in a fall; the Pope promulgated the dogma about the Virgin's bodily Ascension into Heaven and finally CG wrote his provocative Answer to Job while suffering from liver trouble.  His priest friend Fr Victor White stayed at Bollingen for the second time.  However, their arguments over the nature of evil was to lead to a breach in their friendship, needless to say.  Personally, I feel, that White was himself walking a tightrope; that deep down he felt attracted by Jung's arguments but that his loyalty to his Church won over his intellect.  White, when reviewing the Eranos yearbooks of 1947 and 1948 in Dominican Studies accused Jung of confusion and 'quasi-Manichean dualism.'  Jung would reply in a letter on New Years Eve 1949 with the simple statement: 'I guess I am a heretic.' (Op cit., 405)

While White and Jung would disagree vehemently on the nature of evil, they both believed passionately that the church could not function adequately in the modern world unless it caught up with psychology.

Jung on Modern Art:

Jung was never too interested in looking at individual works of art by contemporary artists because he felt that they had an unhealthy tendency towards fragmentation.  We must remember that the whole thrust of his theories and therapy was towards integration and wholeness, that is moving beyond the fragmentation that occurred in many of our personalities and especially in those with psychological and psychiatric problems.  Jung was to write:

The great problem of our time is the fact that we don't understand what is happening to our world.  We are confronted with the darkness of our soul, the Unconscious.  It sends up dark and unrecognisable urges.  (Quoted ibid., 406)

Jung and Synchronicity:

See my other posts on this subject here .  Jung had introduced his concept of synchronicity during 1930 in his obituary for Richard Wilhelm, and in February 1933, writing to a German pastor, had affirmed his conviction that ' a door exists to a quite different order of things from the one we encounter in our empirical world of consciousness...' (Quoted ibid., 406) Indeed, Jung collaborated with the physicist Wolfgang Pauli, the 1945 Nobel Prize winner in his subject.  They collaborated authored by writing a chapter each on aspects of Synchronicity in the 1952 book entitled The Interpretation and Nature of the Psyche. (See ibid., 406-7)  Pauli and Jung were to collaborate for some five years on this topic.  However, Pauli was to prefer his term 'meaningful correspondences [Sinnkorrespondenzen] rather than the word SynchronicityHayman is interesting yet again about this fruitful collaboration:

Thanks to Pauli, Jung's language was becoming less ambiguous and more scientific, though his thinking was shifting towards parapsychology.  According to Max Planck's quantum theory, there is no smooth continuity in natural processes but a series of unpredictable jerks.  The archetype, said Jung, was like a radioactive atom, except that it consisted of qualitative - not quantitative - relationships.  What excited him most of all was the idea that the psyche and matter might be different aspect of the same reality, with archetypes as its governing principles. (Ibid., 407-408).

To be continued.

Above I have uploaded a picture of the younf Swiss physicist, Wolfgang Pauli (April 25, 1900 – December 15, 1958)